Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Thrashing in Operating System

A virtual memory system's poor performance when the same pages are loaded repeatedly due to a lack of main memory to store them in secondary memory is referred to as "thrash" in computer science.

We all know that a program needs to be in the main memory, or RAM, to run. Although large programs, such as video games, can be easily downloaded and stored in GBs on secondary memory devices (such as hard disks or SSDs), they eventually need to be transferred to RAM when they are executed. Data can be managed between primary memory and secondary memory using a variety of memory management strategies. Paging is one of the most commonly used strategies. Because RAM is smaller than secondary memory, it cannot completely store programs that are larger than RAM's capacity. As a result, memory management is essential.

When does Thrashing occur?

In Computing, when virtual memory is used, thrashing occurs. It occurs when a computer's virtual memory rapidly swaps data on the hard disk, obstructing most application-level processing. Additional pages need to be moved into and out of virtual memory as the main memory gets full. A very high rate of hard disk access is caused by the swapping. Thrashing can last a long time until the underlying problem is fixed. The computer's hard drive could completely collapse if it is thrashed.

What is thrashing in Operating System?

The operating system needs to spend more time switching these pages if page faults and swapping occur frequently. This is referred to as thrashing in the operating system. Thrashing in the operating system will result in a reduction in CPU usage.

Thrashing in operating system is a peculiarity in processing that happens when virtual memory is utilized. It occurs when the virtual memory of a computer quickly swaps data with data on the hard drive, obstructing most application-level operations. More pages must be moved into and out of virtual memory as the main memory runs out.

As a result, disk thrashing is a term used to describe operating system thrashing.

If the CPU spends more time serving page faults than executing the pages, a process is said to be thrashing. As a result, CPU usage is reduced, and the operating system attempts to increase multiprogramming.

Causes of Thrashing

Operating system thrashing has an effect on how well the execution of the operating system works. Additionally, the operating system suffers from serious performance issues as a result of Thrashing.

The process scheduling mechanism tries to load many processes into memory when the CPU usage is low, allowing the level of multiprogramming to rise. In this instance, there are more processes in the memory than available memory frames. If the frame is not currently vacant when a high-priority process enters memory, the occupied process will be moved to secondary storage and the free frame will be assigned to a higher-priority process.

We could also argue that the process begins to take a long time to swap in the required pages as soon as the memory is full. CPU usage decreases once more as the majority of applications wait for pages.

As a result, operating system thrashing is frequently caused by a lack of frames and a high degree of multiprogramming.

We can say that thrashing occurs due to the following reasons:

  1. The process scheduling method that adds more processes when the CPU is not being used as much.
  2. Multiprogramming at a high level.
  3. Less frames than the processes that are needed.

Page Replacement Algorithms and Effect of Thrashing in OS

Using either the global frames replacement algorithm or the local frames replacement algorithm, the operating system tries to add enough pages to the main memory to deal with page faults. The Effects of these various replacement strategies on thrashing are explained below:

  • The Global Page Replacement can bring any page, and if Thrashing in the operating system is detected, it will attempt to bring additional pages. This means that no process can get enough frames, and the operating system's thrashing will get worse. In conclusion, the global page replacement strategy fails when operating system thrashing occurs.
  • Local Page Replacement, in contrast to Global Page Replacement, will select pages that are associated with that process. Consequently, there is a possibility that the operating system's thrashing will decrease.