Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Core of Linux Operating System

Linus Torvalds created the Linux operating system, which is free and open-source. Servers, supercomputers, embedded systems, and other gadgets like smartphones, tablets, and game consoles all make extensive use of it. Linux has a vast and vibrant community of developers and users that contribute to its development and improvement. It is noted for its stability, security, and adaptability.

The Linux kernel, the primary element that controls the system's hardware resources and offers services to programs and users, is at the foundation of Linux. Input/output operations, memory management, process management, device drivers, among other things, are all under the authority of the kernel.

Architecture of the Linux Kernel

The Linux kernel has a monolithic design, which implies that the kernel image is a single executable file that contains all of the system's functionality. This file operates in privileged mode while in memory during bootup, giving it direct access to and control over the hardware resources. System calls, a group of interfaces that let applications ask the kernel for services including file operations, process management, network connection, and security features, are the primary means by which the kernel interacts with user-space.

Since of the measured nature of the Linux bit, it may be redone and amplified by including or erasing capacities without disabling framework execution or soundness. Each of the subsystems that make up the bit is in charge of a specific assignment, like as memory administration, assignment planning, or organizing. Agreeing to the prerequisites of the framework, each subsystem is executed as a collection of modules which will be powerfully stacked and emptied. 

Components of the Linux Kernel

Each of the various parts that make up the Linux kernel is essential to the system's operation.

The following are some of the crucial parts of the Linux kernel:

Process Management

The system's processes, which are the instances of running applications and services, are managed by the process management subsystem. The CPU time, memory space, and input/output operations are allotted to the processes according to a schedule created by the kernel. Additionally, the process management subsystem offers services like signal handling, process synchronisation, and inter-process communication.

Memory Management

The system's physical and virtual memory are both managed by the memory management subsystem. The kernel handles memory pages by translating them between virtual and physical addresses and allocating memory resources to processes. Additionally, the memory management subsystem offers shared memory, paging, memory protection, and swapping services.

Input/Output Operations

The hardware of the system, such as network adapters, keyboards, mice, and discs, is managed by the input/output (I/O) subsystem. The kernel offers device drivers, which communicate with the hardware and translate application requests into pertinent, device-specific commands. The I/O subsystem additionally provides caching, buffering, and interrupt management capabilities.

File Systems

The file system subsystem is responsible for managing the system's file storage and retrieval. Applications can read, write, and modify the contents of files using the file systems that the kernel provides. These file systems organise files into directories. The file system subsystem also provides extra features like file locking, access control, and file system mounting.


The management of the system's file storage and retrieval is under the purview of the file system subsystem. Applications use the file systems that the kernel provides to read, write, and alter the contents of files. Directories are used by these file systems to organise files. Additional features like file locking, access control, and file system mounting are also provided by the file system subsystem.

Features of the Linux Kernel

The Linux kernel differs from other operating systems in a number of ways. The following are some of the Linux kernel's most significant characteristics:


It is commonly known that the Linux kernel includes robust security mechanisms. The kernel provides a number of services, including access control, authentication, encryption, and auditing, that allow the system to enforce strict security policies and fight against malicious assaults. Additionally, by restricting what users and applications are permitted to do on the system, mandatory access control systems like SELinux and AppArmor add an additional layer of security.


Linux can run on a wide range of hardware, from tiny embedded devices to enormous servers and supercomputers, because to its incredible scalability. The system can efficiently divide workload and make use of the hardware resources at its disposal thanks to the kernel's support for symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), multi-core processors, and virtualization technologies.


The openness of Linux is among its most important benefits. The GNU General Public Licence (GPL), which the Linux kernel is licenced under, permits unrestricted viewing, modification, and distribution of the source code. Because of this openness, the system has attracted a sizable and engaged community of users and developers who help to grow and improve it.


Linux is renowned for its dependability and stability, which are crucial characteristics in business settings. A vast group of developers thoroughly test and maintain the kernel, regularly releasing updates and patches to address bugs and security flaws. It is simpler to recognise and address problems because to the modular design of the kernel, which also makes debugging and troubleshooting simple.


Because Linux is built to be extremely effective and performant, it can handle heavy loads and provide quick response times. The kernel optimises system performance and lowers latency by using sophisticated scheduling algorithms, memory management strategies, and I/O activities. Real-time processing is another feature of the kernel that enables it to adhere to rigorous timing specifications in crucial applications like robotics, automation, and multimedia.


In conclusion, the Linux operating system is built on the Linux kernel, which is in charge of overseeing the physical resources of the system and providing services to applications and users. The kernel, which has a modular, monolithic design, is made up of several subsystems, including process management, memory management, I/O operations, file systems, and networking. Security, scalability, openness, stability, and performance are just a few of the ways that the Linux kernel differs from other operating systems. At its core, Linux's brilliant kernel is mainly to blame for the success and widespread acceptance of the operating system.