Operating System Tutorial

What is Operating System Evolution of Operating System Types of Operating System Functions of Operating System What is Kernel and Types of Kernel Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System What is DOS Operating System Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking What is Thread and Types of Thread Process Management Process State What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt How to implement Monitors using Semaphores N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK

Operating System Properties

The Properties of Operating System are:

  1. Batch processing
  2. Multitasking
  3. Multi-programming
  4. Interactivity
  5. Real-Time System
  6. Distributed Environment
  7. spooling

1. Batch Processing

In Batch Processing, the OS first gathers the data and programs together in a batch, then processing starts.

The operating system performs various types of activities related to batch processing:

  • In this, the operating system defines the set of jobs that are re-assigned to a command sequence, data, and programs within a single unit.
  • The operating system keeps the list of jobs in the memory then executes it one by one according to the scheduling algorithm.
  • In this, the job is processed based on FCFS scheduling means first-come, first-serve.
Operating System Properties

Advantage of Batch Processing

The performance is increased because a new job is started early when the old job gets completed without any manual interference.

Disadvantages of Batch Processing

  • Sometimes jobs are entered in an infinite loop.
  • Debugging the program is tough.

2. Multitasking

Multitasking is a technique in which the CPU executes a number of jobs within the same time by switching among the jobs. The task of switching the job is so frequent that the user will be able to communicate with each program when the program is running.

The operating system performs the following activities in the context of multitasking.

  • In this, the user directly instructs the OS or the program, and then obtain a fast response.
  • The Operating system manages multitasking in such a way so that multiple operations can be handled at the same time.
  • It is also known as a time-sharing system.
  • Multitasking operating systems are developed so that we can use the computer system interactively at a less price.
Operating System Properties

3. Multi-programming

Multi-programming is defined as sharing of the processor when two or more programs exist in the memory at a time. With the help of multi-programming, the CPU utilization efficiency can be increased. In other words, Multi-programming is defined as the capability of an Operating system to run more than one program on a single processor. Example of Multi-programming: A computer can run excel and firebox browser simultaneously.

Operating System Properties

Advantages of Multi-programming

  • Efficient CPU utilization.
  • The users assume that CPU is simultaneously working on multiple programs.

Disadvantages of Multi-programming

  • It needs CPU scheduling.
  • Memory management is needed to accommodate different jobs in memory.

4. Interactivity

Interactivity means the user’s ability to interact with a computer system.

The operating system performs various activities related to interactivity.

  • Handling input devices in order to take the input from the user. Example: - keyboard.
  • It also helps to handle output devices to display output to the user. Example: - Monitor.
  • It provides an interface to the user, so that the user can interact with the system.

5. Real-Time System

We can understand the Real-time system as the dedicated embedded systems,

An operating system performs various tasks related to a real-time system.

  • In a real-time system, the operating system reads and reacts with the help of sensor data.
  • The Operating system provides the assurance that the event is completed within a fixed interval of time to provide accurate performance.

6. Distributed Environment

A Distributed environment defines a set of multiple independent processors or CPUs in a single computer system.

The Operating system performs various activities, such as:

  • The Operating system handles the communications between processors, and communication is done with the help of communication lines.
  • Operating system share computation logic's among different physical processors.
  • The processors will not share the memory; rather, each processor has its own local memory.

7. Spooling

Spooling stands for Simultaneous peripheral operation online. Spooling is a process in which jobs are put into a buffer, disk, or a particular area in the memory so that a device can access these jobs when it is ready.

Spooling is effective because, with the help of spooling devices can access the data with different rates. Buffer offers a waiting station so that data can respite at the time when the slower device catches up. The application of spooling is Print Spooling.

The operating system performs various tasks related to spooling:

  • It manages the I/O device data spooling when devices have multiple data access rates.
  • Handles parallel computation because the process of spooling is done I/O in a parallel way.
  • Handles the spooling buffer that provides the waiting station for the data to take rest in that time when the slower device catches up.
Operating System Properties

 Advantages of Spooling

  • Spooling can overlap the I/O operation for one process with processor operations for another process.
  • It uses disk as a huge buffer for the spooling operations.