Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Types of Operating System

There are various types of operating system:

  1. Simple Batch Operating System
  2. Multiprogramming batch Operating System
  3. Time-sharing Operating System
  4. Multiprocessor Operating System
  5. Distributed Operating System
  6. Network Operating System
  7. Real-time Operating System
  8. Mobile Operating System
Types of Operating System

Simple Batch operating system

In the simple batch operating system, there is no direct communication between the user and the computer. In this, firstly, the user submits a job to the computer operator, and after submitting the job, the computer operator creates a batch of the jobs on an input device. The batch of jobs is created on the basis of the type of language and needs. After the batch of the job is created, then a special program monitors and manages each program in a batch. Example: Bank Statements,  Payroll system, etc.

Types of Operating System

Advantages of Simple Batch Operating System

  1. There is no mechanism to prioritize the processes.
  2. There is no communication between the user and the computer.
  3. The ideal time is very less for a batch operating system.

Disadvantages of a Simple Batch Operating System

  1. It is hard to debug.
  2. The Batch operating systems are costly.

Multiprogramming Batch Operating System

In Multiprogramming Batch Operating System, the Operating system first selects the job, and after selecting the job, it begins to execute one of the jobs from memory. When this job requires an I/O operation operating system, it switches to another job (operating system and CPU always busy). In this, the jobs present in memory are always minimum than the jobs present in the job pool.

If different jobs are ready to execute at the same time, then the job is selected for CPU scheduling. In a simple batch operating system, sometimes CPU is idle and doesn’t perform any task, but in the multiprogramming batch operating system, CPU is busy and will never sit idle and always keeps on processing.

Types of Operating System

Time-Sharing Operating System

The Time-sharing systems are also called Multitasking systems. In Time-sharing operating system, we assign some time to each job so that all the jobs work efficiently and smoothly. The task may be from a single user as well as multiple users. The time taken by each job to execute the job is known as quantum. After the interval of time is over, the operating system moves to the next task. Time-sharing allows the various number of users to be placed at various terminals so that they can use a particular system at the same time. Time-sharing is sharing the processor’s time with multiple users simultaneously.

The major difference between Time-sharing operating system and Multiprogramming batch operating system is that the time-sharing operating system aims to minimize the response time, whereas the Multiprogramming batch operating system is to increase the use of the processor.

Types of Operating System

Advantages of Time-Sharing Operating System

  • CPU remains idle for less time.
  • No partiality occurs between the jobs.
  • It quickly responses.

Disadvantages of Time-Sharing Operating System

  • The Problem of Data commination.
  • Not reliable

Multiprocessor Operating System

A Multiprocessor Operating System means the use of two or more processors within a single computer system. These multiple processors are in close communication and share the memory, computer bus, and other peripheral devices. These systems are known as tightly coupled systems. It offers high speed and computing power. In Multiprocessor operating system, all the processors work by using a single operating system.

Multiprocessor Operating System

Advantages of Multiprocessor

  • Improved performance.
  • By maximizing the number of processors, more work is done in less time. In this way, throughput is increased.
  • Increased reliability.

Distributed Operating System

Distributed systems are also known as loosely coupled systems. In this type of operating system, multiple central processors are used to serve multiple real-time applications and multiple users. In this, the jobs of data processing are shared in the processors accordingly.

Distributed Operating System

In this processor, interaction with each other takes place via communication lines like telephone lines, high-speed buses, etc. The processors can be different in function and size.

Types of Distributed Operating System

There are two types of Operating System:

  1. Client-server Systems.
  2. Peer-to-Peer system.

Advantages of Distributed Operating System

The advantages of a distributed system are:

  • Speed is increased by the exchange of information with the help of electronic mail.
  • It offers better services to customers.
  • Reduce delays in the processing of data.
  • By resource sharing ability, a user at one site can access the resources that are available at another site.
  • It offers reliability. If, in any case, one site fails then, the rest of the other sites work properly.
  • Reduces load on the host computer.

Disadvantages of Distributed Operating System

  • Distributed systems are more expensive.
  • Failure of the central network stops the whole communication.

Network Operating System

The network operating systems are also called tightly coupled systems. A network operating system is a type of operating system which is created to help personal computer, workstations. Network operating systems are operated on a server and offer the facility of security, users, applications, data management, and other networking related functions. Its objective is to permit file sharing and printer access among various computers in a network, i.e., local area network (LAN), Private network, etc. 

Example of Operating System: Unix, Linux, Novell NetWare, BSD, Microsoft Windows Server 2008.

Network Operating System

Advantages of Networking Operating System

  • Provide the facility of remote access to servers from different locations.
  • Allows easy upgradation of new technologies.
  •  Improves scalability.
  • Security is managed via the servers.

Disadvantages of Networking Operating System

  • Needed regular updates and maintenance.
  • It is expensive.
  • Many operations depend on a central location.

Real-Time Operating System

Real-time operating systems are the operating systems that are used in real-time applications where the data processing must be done in a fixed interval of time. The Real-time operating system gives the response very fast and quick. The Real-time operating system is used when a large number of events are processed in a short interval of time.    

Real-Time Operating System

A real-time operating system is different from another operating system because, in this, time concept is the most crucial part. It is based on clock interrupts. In the real-time system, the process is executed on the basis of priority. The high priority process always executes first. When a high priority process enters into the system, the low priority process preempts to serve a high priority process. The task of synchronizing the process is done by the real-time operating system so that the process can interact with each other efficiently. In this way, resources are used effectively without time-wasting. Example of the real-time operating system: Medical imaging systems, Industrial system, Nuclear reactors control scientific experiments, Traffic controlling signal, Military software system, Airline resolution system, Networked multimedia systems, Internet telephony, etc.

Types of Real-Time Operating System

There are three types of Real-time operating system:

  1. Hard Real-time
  2. Soft Real-time
  3. Firm Real-time

Hard-Real time: - In Hard-Real time system, there is some deadline for executing the task, which means that the task must start its execution on the particular scheduled time, and should complete within the assigned duration of time.

Example: - Aircraft systems, Medical critical care System, etc.

Soft-Real time: - In the Soft-Real time system also, we assign a time to each process, but some delaying in time is acceptable. So, in Soft-real time, deadlines are handled softly. That’s why it is called Soft-Real time. Example: - Live stock price and Online Transaction System.

Firm-Real time: - In the Firm-Real time system, there is also a deadline for every task to execute. But in this, due to missing deadlines, there may be no big impact, but there can be chances of undesired effects such as problems in the quality of a product.

Example: - Multimedia Applications.

Advantages of Real-Time Operating System

  • Real-time operating systems are error-free.
  • Real-time operating systems offer the facility of memory allocation management.
  • It offers better utilization of devices and systems and produces more output from all the resources.
  • The real-time operating system more focuses on running the applications and give less importance to those applications which are present in the queue.

Disadvantages of a Real-Time Operating System

  • In Real-Time Operating System, the task of writing the algorithm is very challenging and complex.
  • Real-Time Operating System is expensive because it is using heavy system resources.

 Mobile Operating System

Mobile Operating System is the type of operating system which is mainly designed to power smartphones, wearables devices, and tablets. Example: - Android, BlackBerry, WatchOS.