Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems

Differences

Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC

Questions

What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System

Misc

Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System

Operating System Services

The Operating System provides various types of services:  

  1. I/O operation
  2. Program execution
  3. File system manipulation
  4. Communication
  5. Error Handling
  6. Resource allocation
  7. Accounting
  8. Protection
Operating System Services

1. I/O Operation: - To execute a program, needs I/O, which consists of a file, or I/O device. Due to the protection and effectiveness, users are not able to manage the I/O device, so the operating system helps the user to perform I/O operations such as read and write operations in a file. The Operating system offers the facility to access the I/O device when needed.

2. Program execution: - Operating System is responsible for loading a program into memory and then executing that program. Operating System helps us to manage different tasks from user programs to the system programs such as file server, name server, printer spooler, etc. Each of these tasks is sum-up as a process. A process may consist of complete execution context like data to manipulate, OS resources in use, registers, code to execute, etc.

The operating system performs the following tasks for program management:

  • Executes the program.
  • Load the program into memory.
  • Operating system offers a procedure for process synchronization.
  • Operating system offers a procedure for deadlock handling.
  • Operating system offers a method for process communication.
  • Manages the program’s execution.

 3. File System Manipulation

A file is a collection of information. For long term storage computer stores, the file is placed on the disk, and disk is the secondary storage. For example - Magnetic disk, CD, DVD, Magnetic tape. Each storage media has different properties or capabilities such as capacity, speed, data access, and data transfer method.

For easy and effective usage, the File system is organized in the form of directories, and the directories contain files and other directions.

The operating system performs the following activities for File System Manipulation.

  • It offers an interface so that we can easily create and delete files.
  • It offers an interface to create and delete directories.
  • It offers an interface so that we can create a backup of the file.
  • With the help of the operating system, we can access the program for performing an operation on a file.

4. Communication

The Operating system offers the facility of communication. The Process requires information exchange with another process. For executing a process on the same computer or different computer systems, it communicates with the help of the operating system. Communication between the processes is done with the help of message passing and shared memory.

5. Error Handling

The Operating system provides the service of error handling. An error may arise anywhere, like in I/O devices, Memory, CPU, and in the user program. The Operating system takes appropriate action for each error to ensure consistency and correct computing.

6. Resource allocation

In a system, when multiple jobs are executing concurrently, then resource allocation must be needed for each job. Resources include main memory storage, file storage, CPU cycles, and I/O devices. The operating system handles every type of resource by using schedulers. With the help of CPU scheduling, the task of resource allocation can be performed.

7. Accounting

Accounting service of the operating system helps to keep track of the system usage means which users use the resources for how much time and what type of resources are used by the system.

8. Protection: - If the computer system has different users and permits the concurrent execution of the various processes, then it is must to protect the processes from one another’s activities.