Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems

Debian's initial release (version 0.01) was made available on September 15, 1993, and its initial stable release (version 1.1) was made available on June 17, 1996. The most widely used version of Debian for desktop PCs and servers is the Stable branch. Numerous other versions, most famously Ubuntu, are built on top of Debian. The next candidate is published following a time-based freeze, and new versions are continuously updated.

Debian has always created and disseminated the GNU Project's guiding principles freely. The Debian Project is a group of people united in their desire to develop an open operating system. Debian is the name of the operating system that we have developed. Collecting fundamental applications and tools on your computer is an operating system. The computer's kernel, which performs all the necessary housekeeping and enables you to launch other programs, is its most essential application.

  • The Linux kernel or the FreeBSD kernel is used in Debian servers.
  • A piece of software called Linux was created by Linus Torvalds and is backed by thousands of coders all over the globe.
  • An operating system called FreeBSD comes with a kernel and other programs.
  • Debian for other systems, mainly for the Hurd, is being developed, though. The GNU effort created the Hurd as open software.

The terms GNU/Linux, GNU/FreeBSD, and GNU/Hurd refer to operating systems composed mainly of fundamental tools that are a product of the GNU effort. Also complimentary are these resources. Of course, people want application software, which includes tools for everything from document processing to business management to gaming and creating new software.

It has tower-like qualities. The nucleus is at the center. All of the fundamental instruments are on top of that. The program that you use to operate your computer comes next. Debian, meticulously arranging and fitting everything to function together, sits atop the structure.

Features And Packages Of Debian Operating Systems


Features And Packages Of Debian Operating Systems

Over 51,000 packages are available in the online archives that Debian can reach. Although non-free software can be obtained and installed from the Debian repositories, Debian formally only supports free software. Popular free applications like LibreOffice, Firefox, Evolution Mail, K3b disc burner, VLC media player, GIMP image editor, and Evince document reader are all included in Debian. Debian is a standard option for computers, for instance, when used as the operating system in a LAMP stack.

  • Kernels

    For every host, there are different variations of the Linux kernel. The i386 version, for instance, has variations for older PCs, x86-64 PCs, and IA-32 PCs, enabling Physical Address Extension and real-time processing. Despite being present in non-free packages and different distribution devices, firmware without source code is not formally part of the Linux kernel.
  • Desktop settings

    For users of XFCE, GNOME, KDE, MATE, Cinnamon, LXDE, and LXQT, Debian provides CD and DVD versions. Official support for MATE exists, while Cinnamon support debuted with Debian 8.0 Jessie. There are also less popular window managers like Enlightenment, Openbox, Fluxbox, IceWM, and Window Maker.
    GNOME 3 could not fit on the first CD of the set, so Xfce was briefly replaced as the primary desktop environment in version 7.0 Wheezy. In November 2013, Xfce became the default for version 8.0 Jessie once more, and in September 2014, GNOME was restored.
  • Localization

    The package descriptions, configuration instructions, literature, and website for Debian are all rendered in languages other than American English. The degree of software translation varies by language and ranges from heavily supported languages like German and French to underdeveloped languages like Creek and Samoan. There are 76 translation versions of the Debian 10 setup.
  • Multimedia assistance

    Debian's multimedia support has had issues with formats that may violate patents, lack source code, or have too limiting agreements. Software like libdvdcss is not stored at Debian, even though packages with issues relating to their distribution may go into the non-free region.
    The Adobe Flash Player, Windows codecs, and libdvdcss are all available from a reputable third-party source that was formerly known as Debian-multimedia.org. Although Christian Marillat, a Debian worker, maintains this repository, it is not a project component and is not housed on a Debian server.
    The warehouse offers packages already part of Debian, disrupting proper upkeep. Stefano Zacchiroli, the project's lead, eventually requested Marillat to either reach a packaging deal or cease using the "Debian" moniker. Marillat went with option two and gave the folder the new nickname deb-multimedia.org. The repository was so well-liked that the Debian project's official site revealed the change.
  • Distribution

    • Debian provides distribution DVD and CD files that can be obtained via BitTorrent or jigdo. Additionally, physical CDs can be purchased from merchants. Only the first disc is necessary for installation because the installer can get software not present in the first disc file from online sources. The complete packages comprise multiple discs (the amd64 port consists of 13 DVDs or 84 CDs).
    • Debian provides several techniques for installing networks. With the help of the netinst CD, Debian can be set up with just the basics; any additional software can then be obtained from the Internet. Booting the software from the network is a different choice.
    • GNU GRUB version 2 is the standard bootstrap driver; version 1 was changed to grub-legacy, but version 2's package name is just grub. Contrary to Fedora Linux, where grub version 2 is known as grub2, this is incompatible.
    • The primary interface can be selected from the DVD start menu between GNOME, KDE Plasma, Xfce, and LXDE, as well as from unique disc 1 CD.

Debian offers live install files with various desktop settings for IA-32 and x86-64 platforms on CDs, DVDs, and USB thumb devices. Users can use these Debian Live images to start from removable storage and operate Debian without impacting their computer's data. Debian can be fully installed on the computer's hard disk from the live image environment.

The live-build utility enables the creation of customized images for discs, USB devices, and network launching. On some platforms, installation files are hybrid and can be used to make a functional USB device. (Live USB).


Debian offers a variety of utilities for package administration, ranging from the most basic command, dpkg, to graphical user interfaces like Synaptic. The apt toolkit is the suggested standard for managing files on a Debian server.

Features And Packages Of Debian Operating Systems

The foundational framework for package administration is provided by dpkg. The present system's loaded software is listed in the dpkg database. It is still being determined by the dpkg command utility what the sources are. The program can use data from the dpkg database and locally stored—deb package files.

  1. An APT utility

    An installed Debian system can be managed by retrieving and resolving package requirements from sources using an Advanced Packaging Tool (APT). APT utility exchanges stored packages and dependency data.
    1. Compared to more specialized APT like apt-get and apt-cache, described below, the apt program is an end-user interface. By default, it allows some settings better suitable for interactive usage.
    2. The command-line utilities included in the default apt bundle are apt-get and apt-cache. Apt-cache is used to look for packages and show package information, while apt-get is used to install and uninstall packages.
    3. The command-line application Aptitude also has a text-based user interface. For example, the software has improved with a better search for package information.
  1. Front-ends such as GDebi

    GDebi is an APT utility that can be used via the GUI or the command line. Similar to the dpkg program, GDebi can install locally.deb files via the command line, but it can access libraries to handle dependencies. Software Center, Synaptic, and Apper are additional GUI front-ends for APT.
    The GNOME program is a graphical interface for PackageKit, which can be used with several program bundling frameworks.
  1. Repositories

    In the context of "free and open-source software," the Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) describe the term "free" in its specific sense. Packages are included in the primary area if they adhere to these rules and are typically released under the GNU General Public License, Modified BSD License, or Artistic License[123]. If not, they are included in the non-free and auxiliary areas. These final two regions can be directly accepted even though they are not included in the formal installation media.
    Packages that do not adhere to the DFSG, such as private software and manuals with invariant parts, are classified as non-free. Packages that do adhere to the DFSG but fall short of other criteria are included in Contrib. For instance, they might rely on non-free programs or require such to be built.
    The Free Software Foundation and Richard Stallman faulted the Debian project for having a non-free archive and making the contrib and non-free sections readily available. Wichert Akkerman, the previous project head, and some other Debian members have repeated these criticisms. Although there has been ongoing internal disagreement within the Debian project regarding the non-free portion, the majority voted to retain it in 2004.
  1. Package organizer for cross-distribution

    The GUI (front-ends) package managers are the most widely used alternative cross-distribution package manager for Linux. Although accessible through the official Debian Repository, they are not automatically loaded. They are commonly used by Debian users and software writers who want to use the cross-distribution package manager's built-in sandbox setting or install the most current versions of applications. While also maintaining authority over the protection.

    In chronological order, the top four cross-distribution package administrators are:

    Binary program delivery using AppImage for Linux
    • The open-source LGPL-2.1-only Flatpak Team is the sole owner and maintainer of the Flatpak software code.
    • Max Howell, the homebrew software's initial creator, owns and maintains the code under an open-source BSD 2-Clause License.
    • With an open-source GNU General Public License, version 3.0, the for-business Canonical Group Limited owns and maintains the code for the Snap program.