Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems

Differences

Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC

Questions

What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System

Misc

Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System

Unix Operating System

Unix Operating System

Unix Operating System is a multiuser, portable, time-sharing, and multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. Unix operating system was developed by a group of AT & T Laboratory employees Dennis Ritchie, Joe Ossanna, Douglas Mcllroy, and Ken Thompson at Bell Labs.  The first language that was used to developed a Unix operating system was Assembly Language and then the Unix operating system was developed by using the C language in 1973.

There are several types of Unix operating system which are present in the market such as AIX, BSD, Solaris, and HP Unix. Unix operating system is known as multiuser system because multiple users can use it simultaneously.

Unix operating system is a multitasking environment because in this, we can run number of programs simultaneously.

Unix operating system is mainly made up of three parts such as Kernel, Shell, and File.

Features of Unix Operating System

There are various features of Unix operating System:

  1. Open Source
  2. Multitasking capability
  3. Multi user capability
  4. Security
  5. Portability
  6. Communication
  1. Open Source: - The Unix operating system is an open source code. So anyone can modify the code of the Unix operating system as per the requirements.
  2. Multitasking Capability: - The Unix operating system is a multitasking operating system because in Unix operating system, multiple programs can be run simultaneously. And this feature increases the utilization of the CPU resources. In Unix operating system, we can type a program in a program editor and concurrently we can also run some other commands.
  3. Multiuser Capability: - The Unix operating system is a multiuser operating system because it allows multiple users to use a system simultaneously.
  4. Security: - The Unix operating system is a highly secured operating system because Unix use different provisions to protect the data. Every Unix user is happy to work with the Unix operating system because it provides a virus-free environment to the user.

There are two security levels provided by the Unix operating system:

  1. File Level Security: - File level security is managed or, controlled by the owner of the file.
  2. System Level Security: - System level security is managed or controlled by the system administrator.
  3. Portability: - Portability is the wonderful feature of the Unix operating system. In the Unix operating system, the term portability means that Unix is able to port to every type of operating system. Unix operating system is portable because it is written in C language and the C language is also a portable language.
  4. Communication: - The Unix operating system provides a tremendous communication among the users. The communication can be of any kind means the communication can be within network of the one main computer or in between the network of two or more computer.

In the Unix operating system, we can easily exchange data, programs and mail via networks.

Architecture of Unix Operating System

The operating system is mainly made up of four components:

  1. Kernel
  2. Shell
  3. Files and Directories
  4. Commands and Utilities
  1. Kernel: - Kernel is the main component of the operating system. It is like the heart of the operating system. The main task of the kernel is to interact with the hardware and various types of task such as File management, Memory management, and Task management.
  2. Shell: - Another component used to implement a Unix operating system is Shell. Shell is the essential component of the Unix operating system. The shell is a command line interpreter. When the user types the command, the shell interprets it and then shell call that program which need a user. There are various types of standard syntax shell used for the commands such as Korn Shell, C Shell, and Bourne Shell.
  3. Commands and Utilities: - Another component of the Unix operating system is commands and utilities. There are different types of command and utilities which is used to develop the Unix operating system such as grep, mv, cp, and cat.
  4. Files and Directories: - In Unix operating system, files are used to organize the data. Then we organize the files into the directories. Again, organize the directories into a Tree-structure.
Unix Operating System