Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems

Differences

Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC

Questions

What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System

Misc

Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System

Components of Operating System

Components of Operating System: An operating system is a complex and vast system. We can only create the operating system by dividing it into small parts. Each part must be a well-defined portion of a system that appropriately describes the functions, inputs, and outputs.

There are various operating systems that do not have a similar structure, such as Windows, Unix, Linux, and Mac. But many operating systems use the same operating system components such as Memory Management, Process Management, and Input/output device Management.

There are various types of operating system components:

  1. Process Management
  2. File Management
  3. Network Management
  4. Main Memory Management
  5. Secondary Storage Management
  6. I/O Device Management
  7. Security Management
  8. Command Interpreter System

1. Process Management

The term ‘Process Management’ means a mechanism which is used to handle multiple processes that are running in the operating system concurrently. Each software application program contains processes that are associated with the software application program when they are running.

For example: - If we use Google Chrome browserthen a process also run for the browser program. In the operating system, there are various processes which also run and perform several functions.

With the help of the process management, all the processes are managed and kept running effectively.

Functions of Process Management

There are various types of process management functions:

  • Synchronization Process
  • Suspension and Resumption.
  • Communication Process
  • Process Creation and Deletion.

2. File Management

A file is defined as a set of correlated information and it is defined by the creator of the file. Mostly files represent data, source and object forms, and programs. Data files can be of any type like alphabetic, numeric, and alphanumeric.

Functions of File Management

There are various functions of file management:

  • Mapping Files onto secondary storage.
  • With the help of a file management we can create and delete a file.
  • It offers the facility of directory creation and deletion.
  •  Helps in backup files on to secondary memory.
  •   File and directory manipulation.

3. Network Management

We can understand from the network management that it is the process of managing and administering the computer network. Network management comprises fault analysis, maintaining the quality of service, provisioning of networks, and performance management.

The collection of a computer/processors is known as a distributed system.

 A distributed system is one which does not share its memory. In a distributed system, each processor has its separate memory, and the communication between the processors takes place with the help of different communication lines such as telephone lines, fiber optics, etc.

In the network, with the help of the computer network, computers are connected, and it is configured in various ways. Network management provides the facility of network connection, whether it is fully or partially connected network. And it helps to design routing and connection strategies, which helps in overcoming the issues of security and connection.

4. Main Memory Management

Main memory is defined as a vast array of bytes or words; each contains its own memory address. With the help of a series of reads or writes of a particular memory address, the memory management process is performed.

Functions of Main Memory Management

There are various functions of main memory management:

  • It helps in memory allocation when a process demand or requests.
  • With the help of main memory management, we can preserve track of the primary memory.
  • Main memory management also helps in memory deallocation process that no longer need the memory or if the process is terminated.
  • Main memory management is also supported in a multiprogramming system where the operating system has to decide which process will get the memory and how much.
  • It helps to specify which part of the memory is in use and which part of the memory is not in use.

5. Secondary Storage Management

The main task performed by the operating system is to execute the programs. And along with the data, these programs are helpful to access the programs, which are present in the main memory at the time of execution.

The memory size is too small, so we cannot store all the programs and data in the memory permanently. So, the computer system provides the facility of secondary storage. In today’s scenario, hard drives/SSD are used in most of the computer system as the primary memory for both data as well as programs.

Although we also use secondary storage management with various storage devices such as CD/DVD drives and USB flash drive.

There are various programs such as compilers, assemblers, etc. that are stored on a disk till the program is loaded into the memory, and then for processing, programs use the disk as a source and the destination.

Functions of Secondary Storage Management

There are various functions of secondary storage management:

  • Secondary storage helps in Disk Scheduling.
  • Storage Allocation
  • Free Space Management

6. I/O Device Management

The operating system is responsible to hide the details of the hardware devices from the user.

Functions of the I/O Management

There are various functions of I/O management:

  • It offers a general device driver code.
  • The I/O device management provides a buffer caching system.
  • The I/O device management provides the drivers for a specific hardware device.

7. Security Management

In an operating system, there are several processes that are required to be secured from different activities. For this purpose, there are different types of procedures we use, which ensures that the processes that you want to operate for the hardware resources such as memory CPU, files, etc. must have appropriate authorization from the operating system.

For Example: With the help of the memory addressing hardware, we can ensure that a process cannot execute outside its own address space or vice versa. Time confirms that there is no process that has control over the CPU without leaving it.

Finally, to protect the process, there is no process that can do its own Input/Output. And it helps to maintain the integrity of different peripheral devices.

8. Command Interpreter System

Command interpreter is an essential component of the operating system. It works as a primary interface between the user and the system.