Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System

What is a process in the Operating System?

A process is a program that is going through the execution. It also helps us to execute all the lines of code in the program logically. With the help of the process, we can create or delete any other process or we can also schedule another process as per the requirement of code that are written in the program.

As we all know, if we want to write a program in the programming language then we need to use a text editor or an IDE (Integrated Development Environment).

When a program is in the running condition, it is automatically transformed into the process. There is some requirement when we execute a program then it starts the process that needs memory address, I/O devices, and CPU.

The process only performs logical operations that are written in the program.

For example, suppose you want to know about something that is only present on the web then you start the browser. We can say this is a process.

Features of the process in an Operating System

A process contains some features that are as follows:

  • When we execute any program in the operating system, it starts the process.
  • When the program is executed, the process is active so we can say that it only has a limited lifetime.
  • When the process is in working condition, it uses CPU, memory address, and I/O devices.
  • It is an active entity that has a limited lifetime.
  • Processes contain high resources.

What is a program in the Operating System?

A program is a file in which we can write and compile the code and we can also execute the file. In other words, a program is an executable file. So, the executable files that can be created by the user are known as programs in the operating system. It has all the instructions and the code within the file.

It is a passive entity that is only active when we execute the files. So, we can say that a program is a collection of instructions that performs the specific tasks that are assigned in the instruction.

We can run multiple programs at the same time. Program requirements are less than process because it only requires storage memory. It only performs tasks directly related to the operations of a user.

Features of the program in an Operating System

A program contains some features that are as follows:

  • As we all know, the program works on the sepific tasks that are assigned in the instructions.
  • It always contains a set of instructions.
  • It is a passive entity that will be inactive until the program is executed.
  • We can also say that a program can be responsible for multiple processes.
  • Programs are stored in the secondary memory of the OS.
  • The program also does not have a control block.

Difference between Process and Program

There is some key differences between the process and program:

  • The first difference between a process and a program is that a process can not exist without the program and on the other hand, a program can exist independently.
  • As we know, a process is an active entity and a program is a passive entity.
  • Another difference between the program and the process is that the program has longer life compared to the process.
  • Process is an instance of the program when it is executed.
 It is a set of instructions that works on specific tasks.A process starts when the program is executed.
A program is a passive entity in nature.A process is an active entity in nature.
A program can be stored in the secondary memory of the operating system.A process is executing then it is always stored in the primary memory of the operating system.
The program has a longer life span because they are independent.A process has a limited lifespan compared to the program because it exists because of the program.
 A program only needs memory space to store itself.A process needs I/O devices and CPU and also the memory address at the execution time.
A program doesn’t have any control block in OS.It has its own control block which is known as a process control block.
There are only two components in program data and code files.The process needs program data, priority resources process management chosen by CPU, and many other things.
  A program cannot be changed by itself.Many processes can be changed in real time because they are using the same program that can change the process.
The program doesn't have any significant overhead.The process generally has an overhead.