Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Linux Operating System

What is Linux?

The Linux operating system is used on various devices, including cellphones, automobiles, supercomputers, household gadgets, personal computers, and business servers.

You can find Linux on your phones, thermostats, vehicles, freezers, Roku devices, and TVs, among other things. All 500 of the best supercomputers in the world, the majority of the Internet, and the global financial exchanges are also controlled by it.

Linux is one of the most trustworthy, safe, and worry-free operating systems out there, in addition to being the platform of choice for PCs, servers, and embedded systems worldwide.

Linux is an operating system like Windows, iOS, and Mac OS. In reality, The operating system states how your applications and hardware communicate. The operating system (OS) is necessary for the program to run.

Linux Operating System

The Linux operating system is made up of a variety of components:

  1. Bootloader - The program that controls how your computer boots. This will be a splash image for most users before the operating system boots up and disappears.
  2. Kernel - The only component of the system that is truly referred to as "Linux" is this one. The kernel, which functions as the system's brain, controls the CPU, RAM, and peripherals. The OS's base is at the most fundamental level.
  3. The init system is a component that bootstraps user space and manages daemons. Systemd, one of the most popular and divisive init systems, is most commonly used. Once the bootloader has passed off early booting to the init system, the init system is responsible for managing the startup procedure. (i.e., GRUB or GRand Unified Bootloader).
  4. Daemons: These are secondary processes (such as printing, sound, scheduling, and so forth) that either launch at system startup or right after you enter into the desktop.
  5. Graphical server - This system component displays images on your computer. It is frequently known as the X server or simply X.

The desktop environment is the component that people actively engage with, so it is item six. There are numerous PC platforms available. (GNOME, Cinnamon, Mate, Pantheon, Enlightenment, KDE, Xfce, etc.). Each desktop system has pre-installed programs. (such as file managers, configuration tools, web browsers, and games).

Applications are one area where desktop systems need to catch up. Linux provides countless high-quality software products, just like Windows and macOS, that are simple to find and install. Most contemporary Linux versions (more on this below) come with tools resembling the App Store that streamline and centralize program installation. For instance, the Ubuntu Software Center (a rebranded version of GNOME Software) in Ubuntu Linux enables you to rapidly search among the thousands of apps and install them from a single central place.

Why should I use Linux?

The majority of people typically pose this one inquiry. When the operating system with most desktops, laptops, and servers can handle most tasks, why bother learning a new working environment?

I'd ask another query in response to that one.

You have the ideal desktop environment when you combine that dependability with a $0 entry fee.

That's right—entry is completely gratis. Linux can be set up on as many machines as you want without costing you anything for server or program licensing.

Let's compare the price of a Linux server to that of Windows Server 2016. Windows Server 2016 Standard version costs $882.00 US dollars. (purchased directly from Microsoft). Client Access Licenses (CALs) and licenses for any additional applications you might require are not included. (such as a database, a web server, a mail server, etc.). For Windows Server 2016, a single-user CAL, for instance, costs $38.00.

With the Linux server, it's all free and simple to install. Installing a full-blown web server (that includes a database server) is just a few clicks or commands away (take a look at Easy LAMP Server Installation to get an idea of how simple it can be). For example, if you need to add ten users, that's $388.00 more for server software licensing.

If the lack of expense isn't enough to convince you, how about an operating system that will function flawlessly for as long as you use it? I've been using Linux for almost 20 years (as a laptop and server OS) and haven't encountered any malware, viruses, or ransomware problems. In general, Linux is much less susceptible to such assaults. Rebooting the server is only required if the kernel has been upgraded. Years can pass between reboots on a Linux system without being unusual. Stability and reliability are guaranteed if you apply the suggested upgrades regularly.

Open source

Linux, which is released under an open-source license, is also available. These fundamental principles govern open source:

  • The flexibility to use the program however you want.
  • The ability to examine the program's operation and make changes to suit your needs.
  • The freedom to give copies of your changed versions to others and to redistribute copies to assist your neighbor.

Knowledge The group that collaborates to develop the Linux platform requires a knowledge of these issues. Linux is unquestionably an operating system created "by the people, for the people." These principles are also a key reason why many individuals select Linux. It involves liberty, freedom of use, and liberty of choice.

What does "distribution" mean?

Every user category can use a distinct version of Linux. You can discover a "flavor" of Linux to suit your requirements, whether you're a novice or a die-hard user. Distributions (or "distros" in the abbreviated form) are the names for these variations. Almost all Linux distributions are available for free download, burning to disc (or USB flash drive), and installation. ( as many machines as you like).

Among the widely used Linux versions are: LINUX MINT, MANJARO, DEBIAN, UBUNTU, ANTERGOS, SOLUS, FEDORA, ELEMENTARY OS, and OpenSUSE.

The screen is viewed differently by each release. Some choose contemporary user interfaces (like GNOME and Pantheon in Elementary OS), while others prefer a more conventional desktop experience. (openSUSE uses KDE).

On Distrowatch, you can view the top 100 distributors.

Moreover, don't assume the website has been forgotten. In this space, you can use Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Ubuntu Server, Centos, or SUSE Enterprise Linux.

Some previous server versions are cost-free (like CentOS and Ubuntu Server), while others charge a fee. (such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Enterprise Linux). Support is also part of those that have a fee.

Which format is the most suitable for you?

Your choice of dispersal will rely on your response to three straightforward questions:

  • How adept are you at using a computer?
  • Do you favor a modern or traditional PC interface?
  • Desktop or server?

If your computer skills are fairly basic, you'll want to stick with a newbie-friendly distribution such as Linux Mint, Ubuntu (Figure 3), Elementary OS, or Deepin. If your skill set extends into the above-average range, you could choose a distribution like Debian or Fedora. If you've mastered the craft of computer and system administration, use a distribution like Gentoo. If you want a challenge, you can build your very own Linux distribution with the help of Linux From Scratch.

If you're searching for a server-only version, consider whether you require a desktop UI or prefer to operate solely from the command line. The Ubuntu Server does not install a GUI tool. It implies two factors. You'll need a firm grasp of the Linux command line, and your server won't be slowed down by image processing. With simple instructions, such as sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop, you can run a GUI program on top of the Ubuntu Server. A distribution's characteristics should be viewed by system admins as well. Do you want a server-specific version with everything you need for your server right out of the box?

CentOS might be the finest option in that case. Do you prefer to start with a desktop version and add components as required? If so, Ubuntu or Debian Linux might be a good choice.

Setting up Linux

Installing an operating system is a very difficult job for many individuals. Unbelievably, Linux has one of the simplest startup processes among all operating systems. In reality, most Linux distributions provide a "Live distribution" feature, which enables you to execute the operating system from a USB flash drive or CD/DVD without modifying your hard drive.

Without committing to the download, you receive all of the features. After trying and deciding to use it, double-click the "Install" icon and follow the straightforward download procedure.

Installation tools typically use the following stages to guide you through the process (we'll use the installation of Ubuntu Linux as an example):

  • Preparation: Verify that your computer satisfies the installation criteria. Additionally, you might be prompted to install unofficial software by this. (such as plugins for MP3 playback, video codecs, and more).
  • Wi-Fi setup (if required): To obtain upgrades and third-party software on a laptop (or another device with wifi), you'll need to link to the network.
  • Hard drive allocation is a process that lets you decide how the operating system will be loaded (Figure 4). Use the entire hard disk, update an existing Linux distribution, put over an existing version of Linux, or install Linux alongside another operating system (dual booting).
  • area: From the globe, choose your area.
  • Keyboard layout: Pick the appropriate keyboard for your computer.
  • User setup: Configure your passcode and alias.

I'm done now. Reboot the device once the download is finished, and you're good to go. Check out "How to Install and Try Linux the Easiest and Safest Way" for a more detailed installation guide, or obtain the PDF installation guide from the Linux Foundation.

Linux program installation

Applications are just as simple to set up as the operating system itself. Most contemporary Linux versions come with what is commonly referred to as an app shop. It is possible to look for and install the software in this central place. GNOME Software is used by Ubuntu Linux (and many other editions). In contrast, AppCenter is used by Elementary OS, Deepin's Deepin Software Center by openSUSE, and some versions use Synaptic.

Whatever their names, all of these utilities serve the same purpose: providing a single location to look for and install Linux software. Of course, a GUI is necessary for these components of the software. It would help if you relied on the command-line tool for installation on GUI-less systems.

Let's examine two programs to demonstrate how simple even the command line installation can be. We provide samples for both Fedora- and Debian-based versions. Fedora-based distributions demand the use of the yum tool, while Debian-based distributions use the apt-get tool.

Both have very comparable functions. We'll use the apt-get program as an example. Think about installing the Wget utility. (which is a handy tool used to download files from the command line). Using apt-get, the query would look something like this to install it:

Sudo apt-get install wget

The sudo command was introduced because installing software requires special user capabilities. Similar to this, to install the same program on a Fedora-based distro, you must first su to the super user (literally, type su and the master password), then type the following command:

Yum install wget

Software installation on a Linux computer is as simple as that. It's not at all as difficult as you might imagine. Still, trying to figure it out? Recall the previous Easy Lamp Server Installation. Using just one command:

sudo asked

A full LAMP (Linux Apache MySQL PHP) server can be installed on a server or laptop. It's that simple.