Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System

What is process termination?


Process termination is the formal process of stopping, blocking, or turning off a particular process because of problems, hence ceasing its ongoing operational use and implementation. It denotes the process is stopped, either indefinitely or for a predetermined amount of time, until the problems are satisfactorily fixed. If the process ends abruptly, it can be viewed as having either succeeded or failed depending on whether the original objectives and purpose were met and further action is no longer necessary.

The process termination procedure is applied in many management domains. For instance, company management chooses the steps to take in order to prevent business processes from existing permanently or temporarily based on the status of intended goals and unresolved difficulties. It refers to a procedure used in project management to close out project phases and activities formally.

Types of process termination

Two different kinds of process termination exist. These kinds consist of:

Normal. A procedure that is terminated typically indicates that it has met expectations and desired goals, making continued implementation impractical.

Abnormal. When a process is abnormally stopped or stalled for an extended length of time, it indicates that there are issues with the process or any of its components, and continued implementation is not allowed until the issues are satisfactorily resolved.

Reasons for Process Termination

Normal Completion: An operating system service call can be executed by a process to finish its execution normally.

Unavailability of the Required Memory: When the system cannot supply the memory needed—which is greater than the memory that the system really contains—a process is ended.

Exceed in the Execution Time Limit: Process termination also happens when the process takes much longer to complete than the allotted amount of time. This can be attributed to the following scenarios:

  • Total elapsed time
  • Time to execute.
  • The time interval since the last input is provided by the Total elapsed time to execute the user. This usually occurs in the case of interactive processes.

Violating Memory Access Limits: Even when a process tries to access a memory location that is prohibited from being accessed, it may be terminated.

Protection Error: When a process tries to use a resource (such as a file) to which access is prohibited or uses it improperly—for example, by writing to a read-only file—a protection error takes place.

Arithmetic Error: Process termination can also result from some mathematical errors, including division by zero or storing a value larger than the hardware can handle.

Input/Output Failure: It describes an error that arises from an input/output operation, such as failing a read or write operation even after a predetermined number of attempts or not being able to locate a file.

Misuse of Data: Data misuse, such as using incorrect or uninitialized data, also ends the process.

Exceeding the Waiting Time Limit: The process also ends when the waiting period for an event is exceeded.

Invalid Instruction Execution: A process gets terminated when it attempts to carry out a command that isn't there.

Using a Privileged Instruction: When a process tries to use an operating system instruction, it is stopped from continuing.

Interference by an Operating System or an Operator: Process termination may occur when an operating system or operator tampers with the process's execution. Deadlocks are one instance of this kind of situation.

Termination of Parent Process: All of a parent process's child processes halt their execution when the parent process ends.

Request from a Parent Process: Any time a child process is executed, the parent process has the authority to end the process.

Causes for termination

The following are the other causes of termination:

  • Time slot expired: A process is terminated from its running state if its execution is not finished within the allotted period. The next task in the ready queue is selected by the CPU to be executed.
  • Memory bound violation: if the amount of memory needed by a process exceeds what is available.
  • I/O failure: A waiting state is entered by the process when the operating system does not provide an I/O device.
  • Process request: If the kid process is asked about termination by the parent process.
  • Invalid instruction


An important part of computing is process termination, which is the process of stopping a program or application from running. In this phase, the resources allocated to the process are reclaimed, thereby guaranteeing effective system utilization. Programs can terminate users willingly or involuntarily as a result of mistakes or system regulations. In order to release memory, close files, and preserve system stability, proper termination is essential. Operating systems use a variety of methods, including exit codes, to communicate information regarding the status of termination. In general, resource management and system reliability depend on efficient process termination.