Computer Fundamentals Tutorial

Computer Introduction Types Of Computer Characteristics Of Computer Uses Of Computer

Computer Languages

Low Level Language Middle Level Language High Level Language

Computer Generation

Generation Of Computer Second Generation Of Computer Third Generation Of Computer Fourth Generation Of Computer Fifth Generation Of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input Devices Of Computer Output Devices Of Computer


Block Diagram Of A Computer Control Processing Unit (CPU) Software Computer Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM

Computer Network

Types Of Network

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


Who Invented Computer Quantum Computing Software What Are The Advantages Of The Internet What Are The Disadvantages Of The Internet How Much Do Computer Programmers Make Is My Computer 64 Bit How To Hack A Computer How Does A Computer Work Edge Computing What is a Router What is a Web Browser What is Monitor What is Printer What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC History of Computers What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is Keyboard What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver Difference between hardware and software What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation Difference between Desktop and Laptop What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector Autoexec.bat and config.sys info What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) How to associate a file with a program What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information Update an Antivirus What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal Use of Internet What is Clipboard Advantages and disadvantages of Email How to install computer memory What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace 8 Technical Courses to Get a Job in IT Advantages and Disadvantages of Satellite Communication Word Processing Softwares Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB) Why has my IP address changed Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys What is Jacquard Loom Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation How to log out of your operating system Are smartphones and tablets computers How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error Top 10 Internet tips and tricks What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia

Computer: CPU (Central Processing Unit)

What is CPU? Explain its block Diagram

The Central Processing Unit is known as the central processor or main processor. The CPU is an electronic circuitry within the computer which can control the input/ output operations and carries out the instructions of the computer program by the basic arithmetic and logical unit.

what is cpu explain its block diagram
Figure: Block diagram of CPU.

The CPU can control the instructions and data flow. The CPU contains internal memory units which are known as registers. The registers contain data, instructions, counters, and addresses.  Some computers have two or more processors. The Central processing unit has two components which are given below:

The Arithmetical Logical Unit (ALU)

The arithmetical logical unit is the combinational digital electronic circuit. It can perform arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers. The ALU is the fundamental building block of many types of computing circuits. The ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit) has the status of inputs, outputs, or both which convey the information about the previous operation or the current operation. The ALU has three parallel data buses consist of two input operand (A and B) and the resulting output. Every data bus is the group of signals that transfer one binary integer number.

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) Block diagram
Fig: The ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) Block diagram.

The single CPU (control processing unit), FPU (floating-point unit), and GPU (graphics processing unit) contain multiple ALU’s (logical arithmetic units). The ALU has a variety of inputs and outputs which are electrical conductors.

The Control Unit (CU)

The control unit is the component of the central processing unit in the computer system. It is used to control the operation of the processor.  The control unit tells to computer memory that how to respond to instructions which are sent to the processor.

control unit

The Memory Management Unit (MMU)

The memory management unit is the computer hardware unit having the reference of all memories passed through it. This memory unit is used to the translation of virtual memory address to a physical address. The memory management units allowed to managing the multiple programs in single physical memory with its own address space. It is used to provide virtual addressing.  

This translation process is known as memory mapping because addresses are mapped from the logical space into physical space. The memory management unit is not common in embedded systems because the virtual memory requires the secondary storage device such as a disk.  

memory management unit
Fig: The MMU (Memory Management Unit).

The MMU performs virtual memory management and handling memory protection at the same time. It is located within the computer’s central processing unit, and Sometimes it operates in the separate integrated chip (IC).

The memory management unit accepts the logical addresses from the central processing unit. These logical addresses refer to the program’s abstract address space but do not compare to the actual RAM location. If we add the secondary storage unit such as disk, we can eliminate the parts of the program from the main memory. In the virtual memory system, the memory management unit keeps track of which logical addresses are resident in the main memory. When the CPU requests to the address and that address is not present in the main memory, then the Memory management unit generates an exception which is known as a page fault.

Address Generation Unit (AGU)

The address generation unit or address computation unit is the execution unit inside the central processing unit. This unit can calculate the address used by the CPU to access the main memory. The CPU needs to calculate memory addresses required for fetching the data from memory while performing different operations.

The Capabilities of any AGU is depended on the particular CPU and its architecture. Some CPU architecture includes multiple AGUs that’s why they can execute more than one address- calculation operation, simultaneously.

Some AGUs implement and expose the address calculation operation. The offset address and the reverse carry address operate in parallel and share common input in the AGU (address generation unit).

The only difference between the offset address and the reverse carry address is that the carry propagates in the opposite direction. Every ALU address can update one address register from its respective address register file during one instruction cycle. The value of modifier is decoded in ALU address.

Address generation unit
Fig: The AGU (address generation unit).

The AGU operates parallel with the other chip resources, to minimize the address generation over the head. The address generation unit implements four kinds of arithmetic operations which are given below:

  1. Linear operation.
  2. modulo operation.
  3. Multiple wraps around modulo.
  4. Reverse-carry operation.


The cache is the hardware or software component in the computer memory. The cache memory can store the data so that the future request of that data can be served faster than other memories. The information which is stored in the cache memory might be the result of the earlier computation or the copy of that data, stored elsewhere.

When the system writes data in the cache, it must at some points write that data in the backing store. The cache is made up from the pool of entries. Every entry has associated information, which is the copy of the same data in some backing store. 

Each entry also has the tag which specifies the identity of the data in the backing store. When the cache is checked and not found contain any entry with the desired tag, is known as the cache miss. Once the requested data is retrieved, that data is copied into the cache memory and ready for the next access.


The cache is the small-sized, volatile type of computer memory. It can store frequently used computer programs, application, and data. The cache is integrated on to the motherboard and directly embedded in the processor or main random access memory (RAM).

The Logical cache can stores data in virtual address space. The logical cache is situated in between the processor and memory management unit. The processor can access the data from the logical cache directly without going through the memory management unit. The logical cache is also called the virtual cache.