Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses

An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a special address that serves as the device's network identification. It resembles a set of guidelines controlling the data format transferred via the local Network or the Internet. Using an IP address, the Internet can differentiate among various routers, laptops and webpages. It facilitates better visual interaction between the source and the destination and acts as a distinctive device identification within a particular network.

IP address structure: An IP address is represented by four numbers; an example of a normal address maybe The set's numbers may be in the range of 0 and 255. to is the whole range of IP addresses as a result.

An IP address is made up of two parts: X1. X2. X3. X4

1. [X1. X2. X3.] is the Network ID

2. [X4] is the host ID.

1. Network ID: This portion of an IP address (Internet Protocol) on the left denotes the Network of the device to which it is connected. If the device's IP address is on a standard home network, the network ID is the 192.168.1 part of the IP address. is the web server ID the gadget is connected to, based on the fact that providing a number without a zero is normal.

2. Hosting ID: The portion of an Internet Protocol (IP) address that the Network's connection ID failed to collect identifies a particular device within that system, known as a "host" in the TCP/IP world. With an IP address like as a guide, the host identification 32 will be the only host ID on the connection

The version of IP address:

IPV4 (Internet Protocol Version 4) is the name given to the original version of the Internet Protocol address. IPV4 addresses are made up of 32 bits. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) concerning network security is required in this scenario. There are still a lot of physical addresses despite the 4,294,967,296 discussions since the quantity of real and virtual devices in use is increasing rapidly.

IPV6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is the most recent version of a web page address. A 128-bit address is used in IPV6. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) must be used to ensure network security.

Types of IPV4 Addresses

With 3.4 x 10^38 private IP addresses permitted, it seems adequate to serve the trillions of internet-connected devices that are already in use and will be added. 

  • Unicast

It is meant for a single network connection on a specific subnet and permits interaction among persons. This address is globally unique for the sole purpose of recognizing the device on an internet connection. Subnet prefix: An IP single-cast address's network prefix is a network identification or networking address. It is important to remember that every node on the matching physical or logical subnet needs to support an identical subnet prefix, which eventually becomes unique across the whole TCP/IP network.

Host ID: An IP single-cast name's host address portion. It can recognize an internet node that certain machines are connected to.

  • Multicast

It applies to one or more interfaces for the Network spread across several subnets. It permits interaction from one to many. It sends discrete packets to many different places from a single source. The Class D address design incorporates those addresses.

What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses
  • Broadcast

It serves one-to-one communications within a subnet and is given to all the network interfaces. It transports packets across the subnet's ports from a single source. Network broadcast, subnet airing, all networks directed broadcast, and definitive broadcast are the different types of broadcast addresses. There are various classes into which internet addresses are divided. It is determined by dividing the total amount of bits used by the host ID and an address prefix of a single subnet. As a result, it can approve the number of networks and hosts in each Network.

The following are the five address classes:

What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses
  • Class A: As indicated in the following Table, it employs an 8-bit network number, the first bit always being zero. For IP unicast addresses only, it is reserved. The host class is used when a network has an abundance of hosts. It defines prefix length with a single octet. The Network contains 28 or 128 digits that it can support.
  • Class B: It allows a network and hosting address to have 16 bits each. The initial two bits are always 10. From IP unicast addresses, it is far away. Two octets are used for a particular network, and the final two are used for host IDs. Large to medium-sized networks are their primary applications. Up to 65,536 hosts can be accommodated in 16,384 networks using Class B addresses.
  • Class C: For IP unicast addresses, it is far away. They fit the definition of tiny networks. The final octet contains host IDs; the first three identify a particular network. Up to 2,097,152 networks containing up to 254 hosts each can use the Class C addresses. The initial three bits are always set to 110.
  • Class D: Broadcasting Internet Protocol (IP) addresses are defined by it.
  • Class E: For practical reasons, these addresses were set aside.

The categorization of addresses using IPv4 is shown in the Table.

What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses

IP Address Types

Public, private, fixed, and dynamic are the four categories of IP addresses. Their local network location determines their private and public addresses, which should be utilized inside the Network's boundaries and accessible outside of it.

What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses
  • Public IP address:

An IP address that is encrypted by different servers and devices is known as an IP address that is publicly accessible. At that point, you link these gadgets to your internet connection. Some even refer to this IP address as their external one. An IP address that can be accessible over the World Wide Web is known as a public IP address. The public Internet Protocol (IP) address is a unique worldwide address assigned to a computer device, similar to the postal address used for mail delivery to your residence. The servers that will enter the public IP address are the web server, email server, and any other server device with direct access to the Network. Only one device is provided with Internet Address Protocol, which is distinct across the globe.

  • Private IP address:

 This includes PCs, iPhones, iPads, and Bluetooth-capable gadgets like smart televisions, printers, and speakers. Your home will likely have more private Internet Protocol (IP) addresses as the Internet of Things expands. These items must be uniquely identifiable to your router; most devices require mutual authentication. As a result, each device that divides the Network is given a distinctive private IP address that your router generates.

  • Static IP Address:

A static IP address is not valid. On the other hand, the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server will supply a dynamic IP object to change. Although not dynamic, the Static IP address can be modified as part of routine network administration. Static IP addresses are unchangeable; once given, they never change over time. Additionally, this kind of IP aids in providing you with additional device details.

  • Dynamic IP address:

A dynamic IP address is always changing. A dynamic IP address is not constantly the same and varies periodically. You might have a strong IP address if you receive cable and DSL service. Since dynamic IP addresses are too costly, Net service providers give them to their clients. Your IP address is given to you directly from the address pool rather than as a fixed address. A new number is assigned to the previous number, and it is returned to the lake after some weeks, days, or occasionally months. ISPs rarely give customers who reside there a static IP address; if they do, the cost is typically higher. Although dynamic IP addresses are inconvenient, you can access them for free and with ease if you have the correct equipment.