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OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet?

VoIP in Computer Networks

VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol. This is a communication system that enables customers to engage in voice, video, & instant messaging calls via the Internet. It transmits voice and multimedia data using digital packets that flow across the Internet like conventional web traffic. VoIP is frequently more effective than traditional modes of communication and can lower long-distance expenses and hardware installation.

VoIP encrypts messages from one end of the discussion, turns them into packets of data, then transmits them over the Internet to the receiver's VoIP software, which decodes them and plays them over the speakers or as an attachment. VoIP may also be utilized for teleconferences, video, voice mail, and unified communications.

VoIP in Computer Networks

What is VoIP?

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a technology that allows for voice conversations via the internet rather than traditional telephone signalling. It converts vocal impulses into digital formats for use in internet communication. VoIP offers various business benefits, including reduced upkeep, cost savings, and more communication flexibility.

Unlike traditional telephone services, VoIP users may make and receive calls from almost wherever they have a web connection. VoIP offers popular capabilities such as conference calls, calling via video, and call forwarding, making it an appealing option for many organizations.

Additionally, VoIP is very secure thanks to encryption along with additional safety precautions, ensuring that confidential discussions remain hidden. VoIP is an efficient, resilient, and cost-effective replacement to traditional phone systems, with ongoing development ensuring new features and abilities for consumers.

Overview of VoIP

The communication technology known as Voice via Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows voice communications over the Internet rather than traditional telephone lines. Voice data is sent over the Internet using packet switching rather than circuit switching. VoIP is a web-based technology that converts traditional voice communications into digital information packets. It offers several advantages over traditional telephone services, including ease and flexibility.

VoIP may also convey multimedia material such as footage, music, and activities, in addition to traditional phone conversations. VoIP is a popular choice for organizations and individuals who wish to take use of all the benefits of contemporary communication technology while remaining able to communicate with others all over the world. VoIP is commonly implemented via a computer and a specific client program that communicates with the server in the Internet.

This enables customers to make, control, and get back calls via the Internet, independent of their actual location. VoIP is also an excellent method to save cash on phone bills, as it is generally considerably less expensive than conventional landline services. VoIP is gaining popularity as more organizations and individuals transition from conventional phone services to the new technology.

VoIP is significantly cheaper than traditional line services while offering the same functionality. VoIP services are additionally lot more customizable, allowing customers to handle their VoIP account and adjust their various choices as needed. VoIP also offers unique capabilities that are not found in traditional phone systems, like video conferencing, conference calling, and instantaneous messaging. Users may also tailor their VoIP systems to fit their own needs, enabling them to take control of phone plans and features. Many VoIP companies are also accessible, allowing consumers to combine multiple services until they discover the service that works most effectively for them.

How does VoIP work?

VoIP services transform a user's speech from sound to digital data, which is subsequently transmitted to another user or group of users via Ethernet or Wi-Fi. To do this, VoIP employs codecs.

Codecs are either hardware or software-based processes for compressing and decompressing massive volumes of VoIP data. Although compression may impair voice quality, it also reduces bandwidth consumption. Equipment suppliers will also employ their own proprietary codec.

To transfer data to other users, audio is encapsulated into data packets, which are then transmitted via an IP network before being unencapsulated back into audio at an additional end of the interconnection.

Quality of service is commonly used in business or private networks to choose voice traffic above non-latency-sensitive applications in order to assure acceptable speech quality.

A typical VoIP system also includes an IP private branch exchange, or PBX, to manage users telephone numbers, devices, features, and clients; gateways that link networks and offer failover or local survival in the event of an internet outage; and meeting border controllers for security, call policy management, and network connections. A VoIP system may also contain location-tracking data for E911 (improved 911) phone calls and administration platforms. This can collect conversation performance data for both proactive and reactive voice quality control.

VoIP decreases network infrastructure costs by removing networks with circuit switches for voice, allowing carriers to provide voice services across broadband and private networks. This should also allow businesses to establish a unified phone and data network.

VoIP also builds on the robustness of IP-based networks, allowing for speedy failover in the event of an outage and multiple communications between terminals and networks.

Role & Significance of VOIP

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a form of communication technology that enables voice and multimedia interaction. It enables users to chat with one other online using a laptop or another device with internet access.

The person making the call uses a headphone and microphone, which is whereas the other party hears the caller's speech and sound over the Internet. The importance of VoIP is the fact that it allows individuals to interact in actual time without using a cell phone or landline network. This increases communication flexibility, lowers operating expenses, and eliminates reliance on a single supplier or technological platform. It also supports call forwarding and three-way calling. Call quality has greatly improved, making VoIP a trustworthy mode of communication.

VoIP offers several benefits to companies and groups since it reduces the expenses associated with conventional phone systems and include services such as video calling and voicemail. VoIP also promotes improved cooperation between staff and consumers by removing geographic obstacles and making it simpler to connect & communicate.

VoIP solutions are also very scalable, which makes them excellent for expanding enterprises. VoIP is gradually becoming the primary mode of communication for many individuals, as businesses of all sizes adopt it. VoIP is a popular, versatile, and dependable mode of communication because to its ease, low cost, and advantages.

Components of VOIP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a technology that allows users to make and receive calls via IP networks.

The framework for VoIP generally includes the following components:

VOIP Gateway

A VoIP Gateway is a particular hardware gadget or software application that connects traditional landline phones to VoIP systems. The VoIP Gateway serves as a link between the phone system and the Internet, enabling VoIP traffic to move in and out of your company. The VoIP Gateway collects and distributes electronic data to physical phone lines while also managing traffic flow, ensuring that what's "out there" is taken care of and that we may use our phones more effectively.

The VoIP Gateway is a critical component of any VoIP system since it allows interconnections between an IP-based Office structure, VoIP phones, and conventional (analogous phones or PSTN lines). It also links the World Wide Web and PSTN paths, enabling VoIP available from anywhere. Some VoIP gateways provide data as well as voice services, enabling automated systems in which data traffic is routed from one form of medium (such as a phone conversation) to a different medium (such as email).

VoIP gateways can offer additional services like faxing, capturing, and call forwarding. Furthermore, the VoIP Gateway should be interoperable with the majority of industry-standard telecommunications technologies, resulting in a more user-friendly and cost-effective solution.


Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) refers to an IP-based telecommunication system that enables users to place and receive phone calls via the Internet. VoIP is compatible with softphones and telecommunication programs that employ an IP connection rather than a traditional programmed phone line and handsets. Softphones enable users to make and take calls straight from their computer, device, or mobile device, for as long as a web connection is available.

Softphones often take the shape of a mobile or computer program that prompts users to input information like a VoIP address or login. When placing a call, customers enter a cell phone number and contact designation, and the app connects to the recipient like a regular phone. A softphone allows users to conduct calls via video, send instantaneous messages, use voice mail, and access additional features such as call forwarding.

VoIP softphones are additionally available standalone hardware devices with built-in headsets, allowing users to make and get calls without the need for additional audio gear or computer applications. These softphones frequently have an IP address, which may be used to place and receive VoIP calls, as well as access Telephony features and services such as voicemail.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

To govern the start and termination of multimedia communication sessions, the Internet Research Task Force (IETF) developed a standardized protocol known as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). It is mostly utilized in Voice over IP (VoIP) networks to allow Internet communication. It's a text-based system that lets users send and receive text, audio, and video communications.

SIP also enables users to transition between several modes of contact, such as voice, video, and text, inside the same session. To utilize SIP, users have to register for a SIP server.

The user's phone commences the registration process by sending a "register" signal to the SIP server. The web server confirms the user's information and returns a "200 OK" reply. Once a user has been added, SIP sends a "invite" signal to the other user to begin the communication session. The invite message includes the user's phone's IP address and the port used for communication.

The other user answers with "ack" reply, indicating that they accept the offer. Once both users accept the invitation, the chat may begin. Other SIP capabilities include session sharing, diverted calls, call transfers, a busy signal while the user is currently on the line, and more.

Network Equipment

VoIP is an innovation that allows users to send voice calls over the internet. This technology transforms analog signals from old phone lines into digital information that may be sent over a network with IP addresses like the Internet. VoIP requires network infrastructure, including a router, switch, of IP phone, to link two or more users.

A router is required to link the VoIP technology to other network components. A switch connects VoIP users to networked devices like computers and phones. To make and receive Internet calls, each user must have an IP phone.

Depending on the kind of VoIP system, additional equipment may be required, like a transcoder, entrance, media computer, or PSTN gateway. A transcoder is an instrument that changes signals between codecs. A gateway connects your VoIP network with PSTN services. A media servers stores, transforms, and maintains audio and video files. A PSTN gateway connects the VoIP systems to the general switched telephone network. For larger VoIP structures, an IP PBX can be utilized to centralize telephone control.

An IP PBX monitors and maintains each connection and network resources. It also determines how calls are routed and devices are linked. It has suitable networks to provide an excellent level of service and dependability.

Quality of Services (QoS)

This is a technique for prioritizing VoIP data and assuring it receives the best possible quality.

Network Monitoring and Management Tools

This is a collection of programs or tools for monitoring VoIP-related traffic and network performance.

These components make up the core framework that comprises the VoIP system. The framework may be expanded with new features and components to improve VoIP efficiency, such as automated failover, call transmission, call recording, other analytics tools. A well-defined framework is essential for providing a dependable and high-quality VoIP experience.

Setting the Goals

Voice over Internet Protocol, or VoIP, is a groundbreaking technology that has transformed how businesses utilize and connect with their consumers. It has helped businesses to engage with their consumers more effectively, save both cash and time, and provide better customer service. However, determining the appropriate VoIP goals can be challenging.

This post will highlight the necessity of creating appropriate VoIP objectives and give tips for doing so. To reap the numerous advantages of VoIP, it is critical to create reasonable and attainable goals. Goals should be explicit, quantifiable, and customized to the company's needs.

Features of VOIP

  • Automated call distribution and active voice answers are essential for large-volume applications, such as contact centers, to optimize call routing and decrease costs. While the ACD allows call centers to triage and route calls that come in according to predefined standards, IVR systems provide callers with targeted, high-quality engagement.
  • Endpoint devices include all of the hardware and software applications required to manage VoIP calling features. This comprises IP desk phones that merely connect to the network, as well as software and programs that may be loaded on computers or smartphones to transform them into virtual telephones.
  • The gatekeeper acts as a traffic controller, routing calls between different destinations in the system. The gatekeeper is in charge of supervising and managing network utilization, guaranteeing that time-critical communications receives precedence. This enables organizations to keep up the quality they provide in their VoIP services.
  • An IP PBX is a type of PBX system that has IP connection that connects telephone lines to the public switching network while also providing extra audio, video, or instantaneous communication via the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack. It also provides call forwarding, voicemail, the switchboard, & call routing to users.
  • This is the VoIP component that allows multimedia conversations across packet systems using transport protocols including Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) & Internet protocols. The media gateways also transmit voice data packets over RTP, enable different tunnelling and compression methods, and manage digital computing resources.
  • A media server is required in any voice over IP telephone network to enable the incorporation of extra voice mail capabilities that include voice-activated dialling, custom call progress tones, unique service declarations, voicemail the transcription process, and IVR support, among others. An application server, on the other hand, offers added value such as call transmission, waiting, among transfer, private calling plans, call information record production, free dial-up service via an IP network, and other features.
  • Multi-conferencing units (MCUs) serve as vital components of voice over IP services that enable numerous users to participate in a single audio or video teleconference at the same time. MCU may also be used to monitor conferences and transcode data streams, allowing for simultaneous connections across varied systems using different communication protocols & network speeds.
  • The Signalling Gateway Controller, or SGC, is at the heart of a VoIP infrastructure, bridging conventional analog call services to modern digital voice conversations. SGC's important duties include supporting signalling systems, voice and media calling protocols, and assigning media connections, in addition to creating call records and maintaining bandwidth management control.

Advantages of VoIP

Advanced Features for a Reasonable Price

VoIP systems, which include advanced voice call capabilities such as auto-attendant & call transferring, enable SMEs to portray the image of a larger firm while making larger organizations appear more friendly and accessible. Unlike historical landline services, IP-based telephone services include complete conference calling features including multi-party calling, as well as other functionality like call waiting, contact ID, and many more for no additional cost. This advantages companies by voiding the requirement to retain a separate telephone conference provider to partake of these services.

Better Security

In an age of increasing data threats and online fraud, voice over IP solutions may alleviate security risks by utilizing IP technological improvements such as full encryption and managing one's identity. VoIP service providers work round the clock to safeguard their networks with frequent security audits, software upgrades, automatic alerts for suspicious conduct, and other measures to guarantee that the business context is never jeopardized.


VoIP systems are typically less expensive than legacy phone services since voice signals are sent via the Internet rather than the old phone infrastructure, allowing businesses to save substantial resources in carriage costs. Unlike traditional landline services, which require monthly payments, many VoIP phone providers now offer a choice of payment plans; include pay-as-you-go options, allowing businesses to pay only for the services they use.

Improved Access

Aside from cost savings, using a VoIP system provides enhanced accessibility. Modern cloud-based VoIP systems enable customers to make calls virtually anywhere, as long as they have a reliable data connection.

In a world that is quickly moving toward telecommuting, anytime accessibility enables organizations to be more versatile and effective regardless of where they are or time.

Increased Portability and Scalability

Unlike traditional telephone services, most voice via IP phone systems are extremely portable, allowing customers to take the service alongside them everywhere they go, self-install, and be functioning properly in no time. Many companies also offer accessibility across various devices, allowing for smooth communication at any moment and from any location.

Increased scalability is another beneficial factor for an IP services that makes is an attractive alternative for developing organizations. VoIP telephony can swiftly scale up and down to meet expanding organizational needs since it does not require costly hardware components or specialized phone lines.

Superior Quality of Voice

The growing availability of high-speed Internet or broadband connections now allows for high-quality voice conversations via IP networks. A fast and steady internet connection with adequate capacity makes VoIP calls clear and crisp with no delay, lag, or call dropouts. Furthermore, advancements like as noise-reducing microphones and improved audio compression are constantly implemented to assure ever-improving speech quality.

Disadvantages of VoIP

Bandwidth Dependent

Because VoIP services rely on the web to make and receive voice conversations, ensuring adequate bandwidth is crucial for improving call quality. For example, network activities such as stream or file transfers might diminish the amount of data available for calls, resulting in excessive latency or delays throughout the conversation. Maintaining an outstanding connection in a service such as VoIP requires monitoring network speed during peak usage times.

Tracking the Location of Emergency Calls

Certain voice over IP solutions makes it difficult to initiate emergency calls. Given the flexibility and accessibility which VoIP provides, other parties find it difficult to determine where a call originated. The calls originate from an Internet Protocol (IP) address with no GPS or mobile tower information to follow, which might result in aid being sent to the wrong area.

Packet Loss and Delay

The overall efficacy of a VoIP service is mostly determined by the velocity of connection or the distance that exists between the connecting sites. Because of the way voice through IP systems operate, traffic generates low packet loss. Furthermore, IP networks do not prioritize traffic; packets containing speech and video are processed equally with other media. This results in inevitable packet delays, which can be inconvenient during continuing virtual audio and video conferences with clients, especially senior management.

Require continuous power supply and a reliable internet connection

VoIP phone systems, unlike traditional telephones systems, require a constant power source and network connection to function. If power fails because there isn't a backup power source, the VoIP phones will cease operating, resulting in decreased efficiency and downtime. In addition, if the web connection fails because of any unforeseen circumstances, the VoIP line stops to function.

Evolution of VoIP

With the introduction of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), companies and people may now make phone calls via the Internet, revolutionizing the telecommunications industry. VoIP technology has existed for decades, but it has only lately received general popularity. VoIP enables users to engage in phone conversations and transmit data using a single internet connection.

This has created new opportunities for both corporations and individuals. VoIP technology has benefited organizations in several ways. Businesses may use VoIP to call and receive calls from anywhere in the world at any time.

Furthermore, VoIP may provide organizations more affordable communication options than classic landline or cell phones. VoIP may also provide organizations with greater reliability than standard phone services since it is less susceptible to outages or other disruptions. VoIP not only provides companies with a more dependable and cost-effective communication option, but it also offers people an easy-to-use and secure means to connect. VoIP offers consumers a number of capabilities, including call shipping, voicemail and caller id.

All VoIP calls utilize encryption to preserve anonymity, providing consumers with a safe connection. VoIP has been operational for decades, but it was just recently ratified. VoIP received formal approval from the FCC (Federal Communication Commission) in 2004.

The approval of VoIP has transformed the telecoms sector by enabling businesses and people to make phone conversations via the Internet. Businesses may use VoIP to save money, increase dependability, and get access to a variety of functions.

Additionally, users may benefit from the security and ease of making phone conversations over the Internet. As more firms and people use VoIP, its ratification is expected to have a favourable influence on the telecoms sector for many years.


Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is often thought of as the telecommunications technology of the future. It is an advanced technology that allows clients to make phone calls online rather than via traditional telephone lines. This technology has grown in popularity in recent years because to its lower cost and greater flexibility than traditional phone services. As the VoIP protocol has advanced, so have its capacities. VoIP now supports voice messaging, call waiting, user ID, and other capabilities. Furthermore, VoIP allows consumers to make calls abroad at a far lower cost than traditional phone service. This makes it an appealing alternative for both businesses and individuals. VoIP has revolutionized people's interactions and will continue to do so in the future. VoIP is the ideal solution for economical, dependable, and tool-rich telephone service because to its low cost, flexibility, and extensive feature set. As technology advances, VoIP is expected to become much more ubiquitous and pervasive than it is now.