Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

MAN Meaning in Computer


A computer network that covers a metropolitan area, usually a city, is called a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). It offers fast data transfer between various LANs (Local Area Networks) and WANs (Wide Area Networks), including audio, video, and data transport. A MAN's primary function is to link the various local area networks (LANs) in a city together so that users may access the Internet and share resources and data. A MAN often covers several km in space, making it more expansive than a LAN but smaller than a WAN.

MAN Meaning in Computer

MAN stands for Metropolitan Area Network. A computer network unites many local area networks (LANs) to form a larger network for resource sharing among computers. This type of network covers a larger area than a LAN but a smaller area than a WAN, whereas a WAN is meant to cover the entire city. MAN is designed to provide Mbps-based speed ranges and high-speed connectivity to users. MAN is difficult to create and maintain due of its complex design.

History of MAN

When local area networks (LANs) were first established in 1994 to facilitate data transfer in buildings and workplaces, public switched telephone networks were the primary source of interconnection for these networks. However, the telephone network was unable to manage that volume of traffic. To solve this issue, it was proposed that LANs be connected via single-mode optical fibre lines, which led to the development of metropolitan area networks (MANs) that effectively facilitate LAN interconnection. Due to their ownership and operation by private companies or organizations, these fiber optic MANs may not have had complete gateway integration with the public vast area network (WAN).

Characteristics of MAN

  • It can cover an area ranging from 5 to 50 km, which means it can reach from a collection of buildings to the entire city.
  • Data rates in MAN range from moderate to high.
  • Because optical fibres are the primary medium used in MAN networks, high-speed connectivity is achieved. • Because MAN networks have a meagre error rate, they offer outstanding reliability.
  • A MAN network can connect to various devices and networks using multiple access methods, including wireless, fibre-optic, and copper-based connections.
  • Hybrid topology: Depending on the particular needs of the Network, a MAN network may combine several topologies, such as a ring, bus, or star topology.

Metropolitan area networks for organizations

Traditionally, a metropolitan area network has been defined as a private data network utilized by one organization across multiple buildings or organizations connected within the same geographic area. Though not large enough to be classified as a WAN, it is more significant than a LAN in a single building. Typically, the size falls between 5 and 50 km. It might also be referred to as a campus network if every building is on a single, continuous plot of land.

MAN Meaning in Computer

A MAN is typically small enough to allow hosted colocation data centres, dedicated point-to-point, or backbone data links to be constructed between buildings. These foundation linkages may be made via a variety of link technologies, including Ethernet runs, leased Dark fibre or private fibre, direct Wi-Fi, wireless LAN (WLAN), millimetres wave (MM wave) radio or microwaves radio communications, or private 5G networks. Public Internet-routed connections, such as those via a virtual private network (VPN) or public cloud, aren't considered part of a MAN graph, even if they may be represented for simplicity. In a well-designed system, there will be redundant linkages between locations.

Networks in urban areas use specialized wired and wireless backbones to connect many local area networks (LANs).

A MAN may use a local interchange operator (LEC) to establish connections between LANs and connect to an Internet exchanging point for high-speed interaction with people on the Internet. It may also forge relationships with other suppliers at a peer exchange or with cloud providers such as Amazon Web Services (AWS) Direct Printing Connect.

Advantages of MAN network

A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) has the following benefits:

  • It can deliver data simultaneously in both directions.
  • Local area networks (LANs) can be connected via metropolitan areas.
  • Compared to a WAN, it provides more security and is more extensive than a LAN.
  • A metro area network often includes a few city blocks or the entire city.
  • It speeds up data flow while enhancing the effectiveness of data handling.
  • It makes sharing resources like printers at a reasonable cost easier.
  • It increases WAN access by serving as a strong network backbone for an extensive network.
  • Because a metropolitan area network requires less resources than a vast area network, its implementation costs are cheaper.

Disadvantages of MAN network

A few drawbacks of a metropolitan area network are as follows:

  • When compared to a local area network, the data rate in a metro area network is slower.
  • Setting up a Metropolitan Area Network requires more cable than setting up a LAN; also, since this Network consists of numerous LANs, it is challenging to prevent hackers from accessing it.
  • Network administrators and qualified technicians are required to implement these networks.
  • Compared to a local area network, this Network's deployment and management costs are higher.
  • This Network is extensive and comprises many local area networks, making management difficult.
  • The total cost of installation and operation increases as more experienced technicians and network managers are required to put this Network into place.

Applications of Metropolitan Area Network

There are numerous and diverse uses for the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), but the following are the main ones:

  • The introduction of VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) services in urban areas allows for the removal of "obsolete" old analogue or ISDN phone lines and the associated costs.
  • Local area networks (LAN) are connected.
  • Deploying Wi-Fi zones without wireless backhaul (Femtocell) frees up all Wi-Fi channels for usage, which improves Wi-Fi user connections by more than 60% in real-world scenarios.
  • Linking computers to each other.
  • Systems for local video surveillance.
  • Transmission via CAD/CAM.
  • Wide area networks' walkways (WAN).
  • Because they provide high latency for transmitting voice, data, and video traffic, corporations with multiple dependencies within the same capital area must build a metropolitan area network at the corporate level.

MAN public or private

  • A network in a metropolitan region may be private or public.
  • A sizable department or administration with buildings dispersed across the city could provide an example of a private MAN. It would route external information through public operators and transport all voice and data traffic between buildings over its own MAN.
  • Packages or fixed bandwidth channels could convey the data across the various buildings.
  • A public MAN is an example of the infrastructure a telecommunications company develops in a city to provide broadband services to its customers in this geographic area.
  • Video applications can link buildings for meetings, simulations, or project collaboration.
  • Nodes in the Network: Citizen Area networks are beneficial in public and private settings where there are a lot of jobs, as they enable the execution of more than 600 access nodes to the Network.
  • Network extension: Depending on the extent of network training for the type of cable used and the technology employed, the networks in urban areas can reach a diameter of about 50 km. This diameter is thought to be adequate to contain a metro region. They can join to construct many networks, covering an entire city.
  • Node distance: Depending on the kind of cable, metropolitan area networks allow access nodes to be separated by several kilometres. These are enough distances to link various buildings inside a city or private camp.
  • Extreme dependability: When a network operates, its reliability is measured by the number of incorrect bits transferred over the Network or the error rate. Generally speaking, optical fibre has a lower error rate than copper wire of equivalent length. The error detection systems do not pick up the mistake rate between 10 and 20. Thanks to this characteristic, metropolitan area networks can function in settings like air traffic control, where mistakes might have catastrophic consequences.
  • Municipal metropolitan networks, which provide them with a network like Internet service providers, would enable municipalities to have a high-performance infrastructure. The town hall can link up additional offices, distant workers, or cameras on public highways in this manner.
  • High security: Since the optical signal cannot be read or altered without physically breaking the link, fibre optic technology provides a safe method.
  • Real-time traffic: The metropolitan area networks ensure minimum latency times for network access, including synchronous services required for real-time applications. In these applications, specific messages must pass across the Network instantly, even during periods of high network traffic.
  • For example, you cannot have more than 100 kilometres of wire between two nodes. A 20 km cable can be roughly estimated. However, it's unknown when transferred data or information could be lost.
  • Voice and video traffic are examples of synchronous services that need bandwidth reservations. Although not all metropolitan networks enable isochronous traffic, metro area networks are the best networks for scenarios including multimedia traffic (information transmission at consistent intervals).

Metropolitan Area Network Examples

  • Cisco Systems has several structures in three distinct San Jose, California, locations. To create a single metropolitan area network, the company dug holes for its fibre and leased dark fibre from another business to connect these locations.
  • The European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, has multiple buildings on the same plot of ground in Geneva. An optical fibre network and a campus area network link these facilities together.
  • All residents of New York City are entitled to free Wi-Fi as long as they are a sizeable single MAN. It also creates a wireless metropolitan area network between parking metres and traffic lights.
  • A London-based telecommunications company leases fibre connections. These are connected by many businesses to create a sizable MAN.
  • The Indian government's National Smart Cities Mission programme aims to streamline communication between the public, the government, and the people. A MAN is required for the task, which was first assigned to 100 cities and is scheduled to be finished in 2023.

Difference Between LAN, MAN, and WAN:

Full FormLAN is an acronym for Local Area Network.MAN is an acronym for Metropolitan Area Network.WAN is an acronym for Wide Area Network.
Definition and MeaningLAN is a network that usually connects a small group of computers in a given geographical area.MAN is a comparatively wider network that covers large regions- like towns, cities, etc.The WAN network spans to an even larger locality. It has the capacity to connect various countries together. For example, the Internet is a WAN.
Network OwnershipThe LAN is private. Hospitals, homes, schools, offices, etc., may own it.The MAN can be both private or public. Many organizations and telecom operators may own them.The WAN can also be both private or public.
Maintenance and DesigningVery easy to design and maintain.Comparatively difficult to design and maintain.Very difficult to design and maintain.
SpeedLAN offers a very high Internet speed.MAN offers a moderate Internet speed.WAN offers a low Internet speed.
Delay in PropagationIt faces a very short propagation delay.It faces a moderate propagation delay.It faces a high propagation delay.
Faulty ToleranceThe LAN exhibits a better fault tolerance than the rest of the networks.The MAN exhibits a lesser fault tolerance.The WAN also exhibits a lesser fault tolerance.
CongestionThe congestion in the network is very low.It exhibits a higher network congestion.It exhibits a higher congestion in the network.
Communication AllotmentLAN typically allows a single pair of devices to establish a communication. But it may also support more computers.MAN allows multiple computers to interact simultaneously with each other.A huge group of computers can easily interact with each other using the WAN.
UsesSchools, homes, colleges, hospitals, offices, etc., can privately use it.It basically covers a city, a small town, or any given area with a bigger radius than the LAN.It covers an entire country, a subcontinent, or an equivalent a


In conclusion, a Metropolitan region Network becomes helpful when the communication region is too large for a Local Area Network to manage and too small for a Wide Area Network to communicate. This area network is more scalable than others since it may be joined to other area networks if necessary.