Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

Switching in DCN


In the vast digital modern world, data centres stand as unsung heroes, quietly shaping the seamless flow of information that powers our daily lives. At the heart of these data centres, switches are the key component. Switching data centre networks (DCN) is like a complex road in a busy city, guiding data packets through a myriad of networks to ensure they reach their destination safely and without delay.

Understanding the importance of change

Switching is the basic process of enabling communication between devices on a network. For a data centre where large amounts of data are processed, transmitted and stored, the importance of efficient conversion cannot be overstated. Imagine this is the central nervous system of a digital giant, where switches do function as synapses that transmit signals between components.

Types of changes in Data Centres

Data centres use a variety of adaptive strategies to meet the requirements of modern applications. Two main types are circuit switching and packet switching.

Circuit Switching

  • In circuit switching, a dedicated communication channel is established between two devices throughout their conversation.
  • This method is rarely used in data centres due to its inefficiencies and limitations in handling burst data traffic.

Packet Switching

  • Packet switching though is a common method in data centres. It allows data to flow freely over the network by fragmenting it into packets to be reassembled at the destination.
  • This approach is highly scalable and adapts with the dynamic nature of modern data centre operations.

Replacement options in the Data Centre

Several methods of packet switching ensure smooth data flow. Let's examine the three most important exchange methods: store-and-forward, cut-through, and virtual output queuing (VOQ).


  • In store-and-forward mode, the switch receives the entire packet before forwarding it to the destination.
  • This process ensures that errors are detected and corrected, and contributes to reliable data communication.


  • Cut-through switching, in contrast, starts forwarding the packet as soon as its header is received, without waiting for the entire packet.
  • While this reduces latency, it comes with the trade-off of potentially corrupt or incomplete data being transmitted.

Virtual Output Queuing (VOQ)

  • Virtual output queuing increases efficiency by reducing head-of-line blocking effects.
  • Each output port has a queue that sends packets to different destinations simultaneously, thus eliminating bottlenecks.

Development of Exchange Technologies

As technology improves, turnover in data centres increases. Traditional Ethernet switches are enhanced or replaced by software-defined networking (SDN) and intent-based networking (IBN).

Software-Defined Networking (SDN)

  • SDN decouples the control plane from the data plane, providing a centralized view and control over the entire network.
  • This enables dynamic flexibility in network design, increasing flexibility and responsiveness to a changing workload.

Idea-Based Negotiation (IBN)

  • IBN takes network automation to the next level by translating high-level business concepts into network design.
  • With IBN, communications are highly scalable and customizable, in line with organizational objectives without manual intervention.

Making a difference in the experience

Beyond the technical challenges, the human side of transforming data centres is an exciting one. These systems are created, manipulated, and interacted with by humans in a purposeful and flexible manner.


  • The switch's design takes usability, scalability, and other human elements into account.
  • Network administrators are better equipped to handle the challenges of data centre transition because to flexible interfaces and sophisticated management tools.

Business Considerations

  • Stakeholders play a key role in data centre network maintenance and troubleshooting.
  • The necessity of user-friendly interfaces and well-documented systems is highlighted by the capacity to swiftly detect and resolve problems, frequently.

Human-machine collaboration

  • Automation, streamlining operations, requires cooperation between humans and machines.
  • Humans provide contextual understanding, while machines perform precisely repetitive tasks, creating synchronous relationships that enhance communication performance.

Challenges and future perspectives

Despite the remarkable advances in switching technology, challenges remain. The exponential growth of data, coupled with the demand for lightweight and high-performance applications, poses an ongoing challenge to data centre networks.

Scalability Challenges

As data centres expand, scalability becomes a major concern. Transition architectures must evolve to accommodate the increasing volume of data and devices.

Safety Considerations

With the rise of cyber threats, maintaining data centre network security is of utmost importance. Exchanging technologies must be equipped with strong security measures to protect sensitive information.

Energy efficiency

The environmental impact data centres experience is a growing concern. Future conversion technologies should prioritize energy-efficient systems to reduce environmental impacts on these sites.

Evolution of Hardware

The continuous evolution of hardware components plays a crucial role in shaping the future of data centre switching. Advancements in switch hardware, such as faster processors and improved memory, contribute to enhanced performance and throughput.

Integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

The integration of AI into data centre switching brings forth intelligent automation and predictive analytics. AI algorithms can analyze network patterns, predict potential issues, and automate responses, leading to proactive network management.

Edge Computing Integration

The rise of edge computing introduces a shift in data processing from centralized data centres to the network's edge. This transition requires adaptable switching technologies capable of efficiently managing distributed computing resources.

Multi-Cloud Environments

As businesses increasingly adopt multi-cloud strategies, data centres must adapt to support seamless communication and data transfer across various cloud platforms. Switching technologies need to be versatile enough to handle the complexities of multi-cloud environments.

Quantum Networking

The exploration of quantum networking brings forth the potential for ultra-secure communication. While still in its early stages, the integration of quantum principles into switching technologies could revolutionize data centre security and communication.

Regulatory Compliance

With evolving data protection regulations, data centre switching technologies must align with and adhere to stringent compliance requirements. This involves implementing robust security measures and ensuring data integrity and confidentiality.

Training and Skill Development

As technology advances, there is a growing need for skilled professionals capable of managing and optimizing advanced switching technologies. Training programs and continuous skill development become essential to keep up with the evolving landscape of data centre networks.

Sustainable Practices

Sustainable and eco-friendly practices in data centre operations gain prominence. Switching technologies should incorporate energy-efficient designs, and data centres must adopt green initiatives to minimize their environmental footprint.

User Experience Enhancement

Improving the user experience remains a constant goal. Switching technologies should prioritize low latency, high reliability, and user-friendly interfaces to ensure a seamless and positive experience for both administrators and end-users.

Collaboration and Interoperability

Enhanced collaboration and interoperability between different data centre components and technologies become crucial. Switching solutions need to seamlessly integrate with other networking elements and technologies to foster a cohesive and efficient data centre ecosystem.

Dynamic Network Adaptation

The ability of switching technologies to dynamically adapt to changing network conditions becomes increasingly important. This includes adjusting to varying workloads, optimizing resource allocation, and efficiently managing network traffic.

Continuous Innovation

The landscape of data centre switching is dynamic, requiring a culture of continuous innovation. Stakeholders must foster an environment that encourages research and development, pushing the boundaries of what is possible in data centre networking.

Community-Driven Open Standards

The development of open standards driven by collaborative communities ensures interoperability and flexibility. Open standards enable the integration of diverse technologies, fostering innovation and preventing vendor lock-in within the data centre environment.

Ethical Considerations

Ethical considerations surrounding data privacy, transparency, and responsible AI use become integral. Stakeholders need to prioritize ethical practices in data centre switching, addressing concerns related to user privacy and the responsible deployment of AI technologies.

Accessibility and Inclusivity

The design of data centre switching technologies should prioritize accessibility and inclusivity. User interfaces, management tools, and training programs should be designed to accommodate a diverse range of users, fostering equal opportunities in the field.

Edge-to-Cloud Synergy

Synergy between edge computing and cloud infrastructure requires seamless data flow between edge devices and central data centres. Switching technologies need to facilitate efficient communication between these distributed nodes to optimize overall system performance.

Regulatory Agility

Regulatory frameworks governing data centre operations and switching technologies must exhibit agility to adapt to evolving technological landscapes. Striking a balance between innovation and compliance is essential for the sustainable growth of data centres.


Switching to a data centre network is not just a technical feat. It is a dynamic interaction between technology and humanity. From the complex dance of data packets to the concerted efforts of network administrators, the essence of transformation is its ability to provide seamless communication in an ever-evolving digital environment.

As we look to the future, our collective intelligence and commitment to using technology for the betterment of society will likely determine the way we transform the data centre. By acknowledging the challenges and opportunities ahead, we can ensure that the networks that connect our digital world remain the lifeblood of growth and innovation.