Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

Define Protocol in Computer Networks

A protocol in a computer network is a collection of guidelines and standards that specify how information is sent, received, and processed across different systems or devices. These guidelines and conventions ensure that device communication is standardized and organized, enabling the devices to comprehend and accurately interpret the data sent back and forth.

In computer networking, protocols are essential because they give devices a standard language to interact in, independent of the underlying hardware or software. They specify a number of features of network communication, such as:

  1. Data Format:"Protocols define the structure, including headers and trailers, as well as error-checking procedures, of data packets or frames.
  2. Addressing: They provide the methods used to identify and address devices on a network, such as MAC (Media Access Control) handles or IP addresses.
  3. Routing: Protocols control the optimum path for data as it travels from source to destination across the network and how to handle routing adjustments.
  4. Error Handling: To ensure reliable communication, protocols specify how problems and data loss are found, reported, and fixed.
  5. Data flow control: This ensures that data is transferred at a pace that the receiver can tolerate and manages the data flow to avoid congestion.
  6. Session Management: Some protocols create and maintain connections or sessions between devices to ensure that information is sent logically.
  7. Security: Several protocols contain security components like encryption and authentication to secure data during transmission.

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), the foundation of the Internet and most contemporary network communication, are typical examples of network protocols. For specific applications and services, additional protocols like File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) are utilized.

Overall, protocols are the building blocks of computer networking because they allow systems and devices to interact efficiently, consistently, and securely. They guarantee that data may be transferred between various network topologies and technologies without interruption.

Types of Network Protocols

In networking, there are often three different types of protocols: communication protocols like Ethernet, administration protocols like SMTP, and security protocols like Secure Shell or SSH.

The three different kinds of protocols utilized in network communications are as follows:

  1. Network communication protocols-"The communication protocols utilized determine a network's effectiveness. These protocols outline the formats and rules controlling data flow between networks. This is necessary for computer and telecommunication systems and includes hardware and software. Communication protocols manage authentication and error detection and address the syntax, synchronization, and semantic criteria that both analogue and digital communications must fulfil to function. Internet Relay Chat, HTTP, UDP, and TCP are examples of network communication protocols.
  2. Network management protocols- Network management protocols assist in defining the rules and procedures required to watch over, manage, and keep up with a computer network to guarantee constant connectivity and top performance throughout the network. Additionally, they aid in spreading these requests around the network. Network management protocols include ICMP and the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
  3. Network security protocols- Network security protocols' main duty is to guarantee the safety and security of data sent through network connections. Additionally, these protocols outline how the network safeguards data from unauthorized attempts to access or extract it. By doing this, it is made sure that no devices, services, or users can access the network. At this stage, protocols like HTTP Secure (HTTPS), Secure FTP, and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) operate.

How to utilize Network Protocols Computer Network

Using network protocols is essential for data sharing and communication between computers and gadgets in a computer network. The guidelines and norms that devices on a network must abide by to interact successfully are defined by network protocols. An explanation of how to use network protocols in a computer network is provided below:

  1. Understand the Basics: It's crucial to know the fundamentals of networking, including ideas like IP addressing, routing, and subnetting, before going into particular network protocols.
  2. Select the Right Protocols: Based on the needs of your network, select the suitable network protocols. TCP/IP, UDP, HTTP, FTP, SMTP, DNS, and other popular network protocols are only a few examples. The choice you make will be influenced by the services and programs you choose to support.
  3. Configure Network Devices: Set up your network equipment (firewalls, switches, and routers) to work with the chosen network protocols. Make sure that the software or firmware is installed on these devices and that they are configured properly.
  4. Assign IP Addresses: Assign devices on your network with distinct IP addresses using the Internet Protocol (IP). The two most used IP versions are IPv4 and IPv6. Devices can discover and interact with one another thanks to proper IP addressing.
  5. Set Up DNS Servers: Human-readable domain names are translated into IP addresses via the Domain Name System (DNS). Configure your network's DNS servers to provide name resolution, making accessing resources simpler.
  6. Implement routing: If your network links to external networks or spans many subnets, configure routing protocols (such as OSPF BGP). The way that data packets are sent across various networks is decided by routing protocols.
  7. Security Measures: Use security protocols, such as SSL/TLS and IPsec, to protect data transfer across the network. Protect confidential data using firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), and encryption.
  8. Application Protocols: Specific application-layer protocols may be required depending on the function of your network. Set up SMTP/POP3 for email, HTTP/HTTPS for online surfing, and FTP/SFTP for file transfers.
  9. Monitoring and Management: Use network monitoring software and management protocols, such as SNMP, to monitor your network's performance and general health closely. This aids in quickly detecting and fixing problems.
  10. Documentation and Best Practices:"Record all of the settings for your devices, including the protocols, IP addresses, and network setup. Ad adhere to best network design and maintenance practices to guarantee dependability and scalability.
  11. Regular Updates and Maintenance: You can update your network protocols and hardware by installing patches and firmware upgrades. Review and modify your network settings frequently to meet evolving needs.
  12. Troubleshooting: Be ready to use network diagnostic tools and logs to diagnose network issues. You must comprehend how protocols behave and interact to find and fix problems.
  13. Training and Skill Development:"Ensure your IT personnel has the expertise and abilities to efficiently deal with network protocols. In the area of networking, promote training and lifelong learning.

Remember that precise procedures depend on your network's scope, complexity, and scale. Modern computer networks are built on network protocols, which you must know how to utilize effectively to create and keep a dependable network architecture.

What is OSI and TCP/IP Model? And How They are Different

Two conceptual frameworks are utilized to better understand and standardize how various networking protocols and technology interact inside a computer network: the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model and the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) model. Both are used as benchmarks, yet they differ in several significant ways.

1. OSI Model:

The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) created the OSI model in the late 1970s. It is a theoretical structure that categorizes network communication into seven levels, each with a unique set of duties and functions. From top to bottom, these layers are:

  • Application Layer
  • Presentation Layer
  • Session Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Network Layer
  • Data Link Layer
  • Physical Layer

The model aims to give users a simple and systematic approach to conceptualizing and comprehending network protocols and their interactions. Each layer carries out a defined set of functions. Comparing the OSI model to the TCP/IP model, the OSI paradigm is more extensive and abstract.

2. TCP/IP Model:

In contrast, the TCP/IP model is a more useful and popular model that accurately depicts the organization of the current Internet and most networking protocols. There are four levels to it:

  • Application Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Internet Layer
  • Link Layer

The OSI model's functionalities from many levels are combined into a simpler structure in the TCP/IP paradigm. For instance, the TCP/IP model's Application Layer includes features from the OSI Application, Presentation, and Session Layers. The OSI model's Data Link and Physical Layers are combined to form the Link Layer in the TCP/IP paradigm.

Key Differences

  1. Number of Layers:"The OSI model/Approach has seven layers, but the TCP/IP model only has four. The TCP/IP model makes it easier to organize networking operations.
  2. Development: The TCP/IP model was created to explain the real protocol suite utilized on the Internet, whereas the ISO created the OSI model as a theoretical foundation.
  3. Popularity: The TCP/IP model/approach is more extensively adopted and serves as the de facto norm for networking in the real world, particularly the Internet. The OSI model is mostly applied in theoretical and educational contexts.
  4. Specific Protocols: Unlike the TCP/IP model, which is deeply related to specific protocols like HTTP, FTP, TCP, IP, and others, the OSI model does not identify certain protocols for each layer.

In conclusion, the TCP/IP model is more useful and often utilized in real-world networking settings, even though both the OSI and TCP/IP models offer a mechanism to comprehend and classify network protocols. Most networking specialists favour this model because it is easier to use and closely resembles the Internet's protocols.