Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

Forouzen Computer Network

Forouzan is a well-known author and educator who has written several textbooks on computer networks' data communications' and related topics. His "Data Communications and Networking" book is trendy among students and professionals. It comprehensively introduces the fundamental concepts of data communication and networking. The book covers various topics ranging from the basics of communication systems to advanced topics in network protocols' security' and emerging technologies.

Forouzan's approach to explaining complex technical concepts using easy-to-understand language and numerous examples' illustrations' and practice questions has made his books a staple in many computer science and IT courses worldwide.

1. Introduction to Data Communication and Networking

  • Data Communication: The data exchange between two devices through a transmission medium (e.g.' wire cables).
  • Networking: Connect multiple devices to share resources and communicate. Topics can include definitions' network criteria' types of connections' and topologies.

2. Physical Layer and Media

  • Physical Layer: Concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. It defines the hardware elements' such as cables' switches' and NIC cards.
  • Transmission Media: Can be guided (wires) or unguided (wireless). Topics include signal propagation' modulation' and encoding methods.

3. Data Link Layer

  • Framing: Dividing data into chunks for easier transmission.
  • Physical Addressing: MAC addresses are used to uniquely identify devices within a network.
  • Error Control: Ensure data integrity by detecting and correcting errors in data transmission.
  • Flow Control: Mechanisms to control data flow so a fast sender cannot overwhelm a slow receiver.

4. Network Layer

  • Logical Addressing: IP addresses used in routing data packets across networks.
  • Routing: Determines the best path for data packets based on network conditions.
  • Internetworking: Connecting multiple networks to form an internetwork or Internet.

5. Transport Layer

  • Segmentation and Reassembly: Divides large messages into smaller segments for transmission and reassembles them at the destination.
  • Connection Control: This can be connection-oriented (like TCP) or connectionless (like UDP).
  • Flow Control: Ensures data is sent at a rate the receiver can handle.
  • Error Control: Ensures end-to-end data integrity.

6. Application Layer

  • Client/Server Model: A distributed approach where a server provides client services.
  • Domain Name System (DNS): Resolves domain names to IP addresses.
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): Used for web browsing.
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): Used for transferring files between computers.

7. Network Security

  • Cryptography: Methods to encrypt data to protect it from eavesdropping.
  • Digital Signatures: Validate the authenticity of a digital message or document.
  • Firewalls: Systems designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network.
  • Intrusion Detection Systems: Monitors networks for malicious activities.

8. Multiplexing and Switching

  • Multiplexing: Combines multiple signals for transmission over a single data link. Types include Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM).
  • Switching: This relates to how data is transferred between devices on a network. It can be circuit-switched (a dedicated path is created) or packet-switched (data is broken into packets' and each packet can take any path).

9. Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Addresses the quality provided by the network to ensure timely delivery and good performance. Factors include bandwidth' latency' jitter' and error rate.

10. Network Topologies

  • Star: All nodes connect to a central node.
  • Ring: Each node connects to exactly two other nodes' forming a circle.
  • Bus: All nodes share a single communication line.
  • Mesh: Nodes are interconnected.

11. TCP/IP Protocol Suite

  • The backbone of the Internet. It's a collection of protocols' including IP (Internet Protocol)' TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)' and UDP (User Datagram Protocol)' among others.

12. IPv6

  • The successor to IPv4 addresses the shortage of IP addresses. Offers larger address space' improved routing' and enhanced security features.

13. Wireless Communications

  • Discusses technologies like Wi-Fi' Bluetooth' WiMAX' and mobile communication standards (like 4G' 5G). Includes challenges such as interference' security' and mobility.

14. Virtual Private Network (VPN)

  • Provides a secure connection over the Internet by encrypting data. Allows remote access to a network.

15. Software-Defined Networking (SDN)

  • A new approach where the control plane (making decisions about how packets should be routed) is separated from the data plane (forwarding of packets). Allows for more flexible and adaptive network management.

16. Network Management and SNMP

  • SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) manages and monitors network devices.
  • Topics might include agents' managers' MIBs (Management Information Bases)' and traps.

17. Cloud and Distributed Networking

  • Discusses the rise of cloud computing' its implications for networking' and how resources are distributed and accessed remotely.

18. IoT (Internet of Things)

  • The network of physical devices is embedded with sensors and software that allow these devices to connect and exchange data. Challenges include scalability' interoperability' and security.

19. Network Virtualization

  • Allows multiple virtual networks to co-exist on a single physical network. Benefits include better utilization of resources and isolation between networks.

20. Overlay Networks

  • Networks that are built on top of another network. P2P (peer-to-peer) networks are a good example' where nodes organize themselves to distribute content without a centralized structure.

21. Content Delivery Networks (CDN)

  • A system of distributed servers that deliver web content to users based on their geographic location. This helps in faster content delivery and reduced latency.

22. Traffic Engineering

  • Optimizing network traffic by dynamically analyzing' predicting' and regulating the behaviour of data transmitted over networks.

23. Network Function Virtualization (NFV)

  • Replacing traditional network devices (routers and firewalls) with software-based counterparts running on general-purpose hardware.

24. Optical Networking

  • Using light signals to transmit data over fibre optic cables. Discusses aspects like Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)' which allows for high data rates.

25. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET)

  • Self-configuring networks of mobile devices connected by wireless links without a fixed infrastructure.

26. Network Security Protocols

  • Discussing protocols like SSL/TLS for secure web browsing' IPSec for secure IP communication' and protocols for secure email like S/MIME and PGP.

27. Deep Packet Inspection (DPI)

  • Advanced method of examining and managing network traffic. It can identify the content of data packets and make decisions based on the content.

28. Unified Communications

  • Integration of real-time communication services like chat' voice' video conferencing' and data sharing on a single network.

29. Edge and Fog Computing

  • Moving computation away from data centres towards the network's edge' closer to the data source. This helps in reducing latency and bandwidth usage.

30. Quantum Networking

  • The use of quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data. It's a developing field that promises ultra-secure communication.

31. Zero Trust Networks

A security model that requires all users' even those inside the organization's enterprise network' to be authenticated' authorized' and continuously validating security configuration and posture before being granted or keeping access.

32. Blockchain in Networking

  • Blockchain's decentralized ledger technology applied to networking can provide secure routing' domain name systems' and decentralized internet infrastructure solutions.

33. Autonomous Networks

  • Networks that use artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) for self-management' self-healing' and self-optimization' reducing the need for human intervention.

34. Intent-Based Networking (IBN)

  • Translates business intent into network policies and automatically ensures the network state aligns with the purpose.

35. Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN)

  • Wireless networks are designed for long-range communications with minimal power consumption. Examples include LoRaWAN and NB-IoT.

36. Satellite Communication

  • The use of satellite systems for data communication' including GPS systems' internet connectivity in remote locations' and the upcoming mega-constellations like Starlink.

37. 5G and Beyond

  • Delving into the benefits' architecture' challenges' and potential of 5G networks and speculating on 6G technologies.

38. Underwater Networking

  • Techniques and technologies for communication underwater' typically using acoustic waves.

39. Network Slicing

  • Network virtualization allows creating multiple unique' virtualized end-to-end networks on top of a shared physical infrastructure.

40. Tactile Internet

  • An emerging field focuses on ultra-reliable and ultra-responsive networks to transmit touch and actuation in real time.

41. Augmented Reality (AR) & Virtual Reality (VR) Networking

  • Discussing the specific needs and challenges for network infrastructures to support seamless AR and VR experiences.

42. Green Networking

  • Focuses on energy-efficient networking solutions to minimize the carbon footprint of both equipment and network operations.

43. Neural Networks in Networking

  • Leveraging deep learning models and neural networks to predict network congestions and anomalies or optimize routing.

44. Cognitive Radio Networks

  • Radio networks can autonomously decide on the best frequency' power levels' and modulation techniques' adapting to real-time conditions.

45. Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN)

  • Networks are designed to operate effectively over extreme distances like those encountered in space communications.

46.Interplanetary Internet

  • Efforts and technologies to establish a data communication standard for internet-like services across planets.

Each of these topics comprises its own set of challenges' techniques' and ongoing research. They show the breadth and depth of the subject' which is constantly evolving with technological advancements. The detailed exploration of these concepts is pivotal for both students and professionals who aim to specialize in networking or related fields.


At its core' computer networking focuses on connecting devices to share data and resources. From its inception' where the primary aim was to facilitate communication between a limited number of machines' it has expanded into a colossal domain. Today' it covers many technologies' protocols' architectures' and applications that support our digital world.

Our exploration touched on the foundational concepts' such as the OSI model's layers' the intricacies of protocols like TCP/IP' and the physical hardware that enables communication. As we delved deeper' we encountered advanced topics' from the rise of wireless and mobile networks to the challenges and solutions brought forth by the Internet of Things' blockchain' and AI-driven autonomous networks.

Moreover' the future of networking is not just constrained to our planet. With the advent of space exploration and the potential colonization of other worlds' concepts like interplanetary Internet come into play. These innovative ideas challenge our traditional understanding and push us to rethink how networks will function in extreme environments.