Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

TCP/IP Applications

TCP/IP stands for "Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol". In the vast realm of computer networks, the TCP/IP stands as the cornerstone that facilitates seamless communication across the digital landscape. Its significance lies not only in its foundational role but also in the multitude of applications that leverage its capabilities.

  • Web Browsing: Navigating the Digital Frontier: At the forefront of TCP/IP applications is web browsing. The World Wide Web relies heavily on protocols like HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) to enable the seamless retrieval and display of web pages. Every click, every search, and every website visit involves the intricate dance of TCP/IP protocols, ensuring that the information reaches our screens securely and efficiently.
  • Email Communication: Bridging the Gaps: Email, a ubiquitous part of modern communication, owes its existence to protocols like SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and POP3/IMAP (Post Office Protocol 3/Internet Message Access Protocol). These protocols, operating atop the TCP/IP stack, ensure that our messages traverse the vast expanse of the internet securely, reaching their intended destinations with reliability.
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): Sharing Beyond Boundaries: In the realm of data exchange, FTP emerges as a stalwart application of TCP/IP. Whether it's uploading files to a server or downloading resources from the web, FTP ensures the efficient transfer of data. Its use extends beyond casual file sharing, finding application in website maintenance, software updates, and much more.
  • Remote Access: Bringing Networks Closer: Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) and Telnet, both riding on the backbone of TCP/IP, empower users to access and control remote computers. This proves invaluable for system administrators, support personnel, and anyone in need of managing a computer or server from a distance. The security and reliability provided by TCP/IP protocols ensure a seamless remote experience.
  • Voice over IP (VoIP): Revolutionizing Communication: The advent of VoIP, epitomized by applications like Skype, WhatsApp, and Zoom, has transformed the way we communicate. TCP/IP's role in facilitating real-time voice and video communication over the internet is unparalleled. The robustness of these protocols ensures that our virtual conversations remain smooth and uninterrupted.
  • Domain Name System (DNS): Navigating the Digital Address Book: TCP/IP applications extend beyond direct user interactions to fundamental systems like DNS. DNS translates human-readable domain names into IP addresses, allowing us to access websites using familiar names rather than numerical IP addresses. This seamless translation, powered by TCP/IP, simplifies our navigation through the vast expanse of the internet.
  • Network Time Protocol (NTP): Synchronizing the Digital Clocks: The precision of timekeeping in the digital realm owes much to NTP, a protocol within the TCP/IP suite. NTP ensures that clocks across the internet remain synchronized, vital for various applications, including financial transactions, communication protocols, and system logging.
  • Virtual Private Networks (VPNs): Securing Digital Tunnels: In an era where online privacy is paramount, VPNs have emerged as powerful tools. These applications use TCP/IP protocols to create secure tunnels over the internet, encrypting data and ensuring a private connection. Whether for remote work or secure browsing, VPNs rely on TCP/IP for their robust and reliable connectivity.
  • Internet of Things (IoT): Connecting the Unseen: As the Internet of Things (IoT) continues to burgeon, TCP/IP plays a pivotal role in connecting the myriad devices that constitute this interconnected ecosystem. From smart home devices to industrial sensors, the seamless communication facilitated by TCP/IP ensure that data flows reliably and securely, enabling the efficient operation of IoT systems.
  • Instant Messaging: Real-Time Conversations, Anytime, Anywhere: Instant messaging applications like WhatsApp, Telegram, and Slack rely on TCP/IP to deliver messages in real-time. Whether it's a casual chat or a critical business communication, the robustness of TCP/IP ensures that messages are transmitted promptly, contributing to the instantaneous nature of modern digital conversations.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the backbone of modern computer networks, providing seamless communication in the digital landscape Its applications play a central role in shaping our online experiences.

The Web: Navigating the Digital Frontier

The Internet experience is inextricably linked with online browsing, which is made possible by reliable protocols like TCP/IP, HTTP, and HTTPS, which guarantee the efficient and safe retrieval of web pages. Each and every click, search, and website visit pass across TCP/2.0, part of the intricate ballet of IP protocols. It is impossible to overestimate the significance of HTTPS since it allows sensitive data, like financial transactions and login credentials, to be transmitted securely. The TCP/IP protocol's encryption and dependability will be crucial as long as cyberattacks persist.

Email communication: Bridging the gap

Email, the cornerstone of modern communication, owes its presence to TCP/IP protocols such as SMTP and POP3/IMAP. These systems facilitate the sending of secure and reliable emails across the vast Internet. SMTP handles sending email, ensuring it reaches the intended recipients, while POP3/IMAP allows users to retrieve their email from servers. The performance of these protocols highlights the reliability of email as a communication medium.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP): Shared across borders

In the data exchange realm, FTP stands out as a powerful TCP/IP implementation. Whether it's uploading files to a server or downloading content from the web, FTP ensures smooth data transfer. Its versatility extends beyond random file sharing; Explores applications in web maintenance, software innovation, and collaborative workspaces. The ease of file transfer facilitated by TCP/IP contributes to the efficiency of online systems.

Further Proximity Movement: Extension

Telnet and Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) allow users to access and administer remote machines across a TCP/IP backbone. System administrators support personnel, and anybody else who has to remotely administer a computer or server will find this to be very helpful. A distributed system needs to work properly, and the TCP/IP protocol's dependability and security guarantee a smooth distant experience.

Voice over IP (VoIP): Revolutionizing communications

The advent of VoIP applications like Skype, WhatsApp and Zoom has changed the way we communicate. The role of TCP/IP in real-time voice and video communication over the Internet is unparalleled. This robust infrastructure ensures that our virtual conversations remain smooth and seamless, contributing to the globalization of networking and remote collaboration.

Domain Name System (DNS): Navigating the Digital Address Book

TCP/IP applications extend beyond direct user communication to basic systems such as DNS. DNS translates human-readable domain names into IP addresses, allowing us to route websites by names we know instead of using numeric IP addresses. Powered by TCP/IP, this simple version simplifies our journey across the vast Internet and enhances the user experience.

Network Time Protocol (NTP): Digital clocks

A comprehensive system in the digital realm owes much to NTP, a protocol in the TCP/IP suite. NTP ensures that hours of Internet usage remain consistent, which is important for a variety of applications including financial transactions, networking, and systems of reference.Accurate timestamps facilitated by NTP enhance the reliability and consistency of online activities.

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs): Securing Digital Tunnels

At a time when online privacy is paramount, VPNs have emerged as powerful tools. This service uses the TCP/IP protocol to create secure paths over the Internet, encrypt data, and ensure private connections. Whether for remote work or secure browsing, VPNs rely on TCP/IP for their strong and reliable connections. The growing use of remote services emphasizes the importance of secure and confidential connections accessible through the TCP/IP protocol.

Instant Messaging: Real-time, anytime, anywhere conversations

Instant messaging services like WhatsApp, Telegram, and Slack rely on TCP/IP to deliver messages in real time. Whether for casual conversations or critical business transactions, TCP/IP capabilities ensure that messages are delivered quickly, helping to make modern digital communications instantaneous with the low latency and reliability of the TCP/IP protocol in plays an important role in the practical experience -time communication systems.


In the intricate web of digital connectivity, TCP/IP applications serve as the threads that bind our online experiences. From the simplicity of web browsing to the complexity of secure data transfer, these applications underscore the versatility and indispensability of the TCP/IP suite. As we continue to navigate the digital landscape, understanding and appreciating the role of TCP/IP applications becomes increasingly crucial. They not only shape our present online interactions but also pave the way for the future of connected technologies.

The complexity of digital communications networks finds its formulas in the use of TCP/IP. From the flexibility of connections to the robustness of secure data transfer, these applications highlight the versatility and redundancy of the TCP/IP suite. As we continue to take on the digital landscape so it becomes increasingly important to understand and appreciate the role of TCP/IP applications that use it. They are not only overhauling our current online networks but paving the way for future connected technologies by influencing the evolution of connectivity, collaboration and the wider digital ecosystem.