Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network

In a computer network, data signals travel over physical lanes known as guided transmission media, often called bounded or wired transmission media. Usually made of various materials, these routes are intended to direct or restrict the signals from one network device to another. Both local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) must have guided transmission medium. In computer networks, guided transmission mediums come in a variety of forms:

1. Twisted Pair Cable:

  • The most widely used type of guided transmission media is twisted pair wires. They are made up of twisted pairs of insulated copper wires.
  • Twisted pair connections are utilized in well-known Cat 5e, Cat 6, and Cat 7 cables and Ethernet networks.
  • They are excellent for various network applications because of their affordability and flexibility.

2. Coaxial Cable:

  • A metallic shield, an outer insulating layer, and a centre conductor are all included in coaxial cables.
  • Coaxial cables are frequently utilized in broadband internet connections and cable television (CATV) networks.
  • They provide more bandwidth and greater shielding than twisted pair wires.

3. Optical Fiber:

  • Thin strands of glass or plastic are used in optical fibre cables to transfer data messages in the form of light pulses.
  • Fibre optic cables are renowned for their long-distance and fast data transfer speeds.
  • Due to the difficulties of intercepting the transmission, they offer great security and are resilient to electromagnetic interference.

4. Leased Lines:

  • Leased lines are exclusive communication lines that are rented from a telecom company.
  • They frequently provide steady, dependable bandwidth for point-to-point communications between far-off destinations.

5. Waveguides:

  • In high-frequency applications, hollow metallic tubes or channels called waveguides direct microwave waves.
  • They are frequently used in satellite, radar, and wireless communication systems.

Difference between Guided and Unguided Transmission Media

The two types of communication channels utilized in computer networks, guided and unguided transmission media, vary in terms of how they transfer data signals and the settings in which they are used. The main distinctions between guided and unguided transmission medium in computer networks are as follows:

Guided Transmission Media (Wired):

  1. Physical Pathway: Guided transmission medium transfers data signals through physical cables or conductors. The signals move in a regulated environment thanks to these wires.
  2. Protection from Interference: Since the signals are inside the cable's physical boundaries, guided media protect against external interference and ambiguity.
  3. Data Integrity: Due to guided media's reduced susceptibility to signal deterioration over distance, data integrity is often good. Common examples of guided transmission mediums are fibre optic cables, coaxial cables, and twisted pair cables.
  4. Utilization: Guided media are widely used in LAN, WAN, and data centre contexts and are appropriate for short- and long-distance communication.
  5. Installation and Maintenance: Because of the physical cabling infrastructure, they usually need more time and money for installation and maintenance.

Unguided Transmission Media (Wireless):

  1. No Physical Cables: Unguided transmission media are not dependent on physical cables, which is number one. Instead, they communicate data through wireless signals.
  2. Vulnerable to Interference: Unguided media are more susceptible to interruption from other wireless devices, the environment, and objects that might block or disperse signals.
  3. Data Integrity: Signal weakening and interference, particularly over long distances, might undermine data integrity. This includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared signals, and satellite communication.
  4. Utilization: Unguided media are appropriate for mobile and flexible networking contexts and are frequently utilized for wireless communication.
  5. Installation and Maintenance: Since they don't need actual cords, they are typically simpler to install and maintain than guided media.


In conclusion, guided transmission media are appropriate for short- and long-distance applications because they employ physical connections for transmitting data and provide more regulated and dependable communication.

On the other hand, Unguided transmission mediums rely on wireless signals and are more prone to interference, although they function well in scenarios involving mobile and flexible networking. One can choose between guided and unguided media based on distance, bandwidth needs, and environmental considerations. Current computer network architectures sometimes combine these two types to offer the best of both worlds.