Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Model

OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography

Misc

Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking?

Circuit Switching in Computer Networks

Introduction

In Computer Networks, circuit switching is a form of network setup which involves obtaining a physical path assigned to a single connection between two network endpoints for the duration of that connection. For example, regular telephone service makes use of circuit switching.

The length of a call is spent using this reserved circuit. The circuit cannot be utilized for other purposes while the call progresses.

Circuit Switching in Computer Networks

The bandwidth and data transfer rate are fixed in circuit switching. Because circuit switching is connection-oriented, it requires a physical link to function across hosts.

Phases of Circuit Switching

The three stages of circuit switching are as follows:

  • Circuit Establishment: A dedicated circuit is constructed between the two end devices or from the source to the destination using the number of intermediate switching centre offices. To request and acknowledge the construction of a circuit, communication signals are transmitted by the sender on the source and the receiver on the destination side. The physical links connect the intermediary switches.
  • Data Transfer: Establishing a specific connection between the source and the destination. Voice and data are transported from one place to another. This link endures till the conclusion of the conversation.
  • Disconnect the circuit: The circuit cuts the connection after the finished data transfer.

Characteristics of Circuit Switched Network

  • Another name for it is the public network.
  • Because the signals are voice signals, managing digital data and traffic is simple.
  • It is feasible for the voice signal to be sent concurrently with an electric current.
  • The method is referred to as connection-oriented.
  • In a circuit switching network, the path must be established before transmitting data.
  • The path can only be terminated when the connection is terminated. • The quantity of data transferred during circuit switching is fixed.

Types of Switches in Circuit Switching

Circuit Switching in Computer Networks

In circuit switching, two sorts of switches are utilized, and they are as follows:

Space Division Switches

Space division switching involves separating the circuit's pathways from one another. The analogue network was the primary goal of the space division. But it's employed in both digital and analogue switching. Space division switches employ a switch type called a crosspoint switch. It uses semiconductor gates and finds usage in digital communication.

A space-division switch has the benefit of fast switching, but it also has the drawback of requiring blocking to determine the number of crosspoints.

Time-Division Switches

All connections in the time-division switching method use the same trunk line. Time-division multiplexing splits the streams into smaller pieces and ensures that the segments are supplied at predetermined times. A de-multiplexer is used to assist in the element detection process.

Uses of Circuit Switching

The following are some instances where circuit switching is mainly used:

  • Continuous Connections: Circuit switching is employed for connections that must remain active for extended periods, such as long-distance communication. Circuit switching is a technology used in traditional telephone systems or landlines.
  • Dial-up Network Connections: Computers that use dial-up services to access the internet do so over the public switching network. Internet Protocol (IP) data packets are transmitted via dial-up across a circuit-switched telephone network.
  • Optical Circuit Switching: Circuit switching is also used in data centre networks. Traditional data centers can be scaled with optical circuit switching to accommodate expanding bandwidth needs.

Difference between Packet-Switched and Circuit-Switched Networks

Circuit-switched networks are connection-oriented, whereas packet-switched networks are connectionless. This is the primary distinction between the two types of networks. Packet switching is used in the telephone protocol known as voice-over IP.

Information is divided into data packets for packet switching, and each packet is sent over the network separately from the others. Unlike circuit switching, there is no fixed, dedicated channel. Rather, packets are transmitted via a shared network with other hosts. Additionally, transmission is not constant.

Switched virtual circuits are seen in certain packet-switched networks, such as X.25. Using packet-switching technology, virtual circuit switching creates a dedicated connection. A logical connection that is dedicated to allowing numerous virtual circuit connections to share a physical channel is called a virtual circuit-switched connection.

Packet switching does not pre-save all of a connection's bandwidth. It is, therefore, more energy-efficient. Packet switching has the potential to produce poor transmission quality due to missing or lost packets.

Examples of Circuit Switched Networks

Some instances of circuit-switched networks are as follows:

  • ISDN B-channel
  • Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
  • Optical Mesh Network
  • High-speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD) and Circuit-Switched Data (CSD) services in cellular networks such as GSM

Applications of Circuit Switching

  • Traditional Telephone Networks: Early telephone networks were built on circuit switching. A dedicated circuit is created between you and the person you call when you dial a phone number, ensuring consistent speech quality throughout the discussion.
  • Satellite Communications: In various satellite communication systems, especially those needing dependable and constant connections, circuit switching can link ground stations and satellites.
  • Video Conferencing: Circuit switching can be utilized in some high-quality configurations that require dedicated resources to ensure uninterrupted video and audio streams, even though packet switching is more frequently used in modern video conferencing.
  • ATM and Banking Networks: Circuit switching may be used by some ATM (Automated Teller Machine) networks and banking systems to provide dependable and secure communication for financial transactions.
  • Military Communications: Circuit switching can establish dedicated, encrypted communication lines in a crisis, guaranteeing confidentiality and dependability.

Advantages of Circuit Switching

Circuit switching offers the following benefits: 

  • The primary benefit of circuit switching is establishing a dedicated transmission channel between the computers, which ensures a certain data rate.
  • When using in-circuit switching, the dedicated transmission line ensures that data flow proceeds without delay.
  • Reliability: Because the dedicated communication line is set aside for the duration of the connection, circuit switching offers a high degree of reliability. This guarantees that there won't be any data loss or corruption during transmission.
  • Quality of service: Circuit switching ensures a particular level of service quality, allowing the network to prioritize some types of traffic over others, including voice and video, web browsing, and email, for example.
  • Security: Because only the two communicating parties may access the dedicated communication line, circuit switching offers higher security than packet switching. By doing this, data breaches and illegal access may be avoided.
  • Ease of management: Because the communication path for circuit switching is pre-established and allocated to a particular communication, it is comparatively simple to administer. Error risk can be decreased, and network administration can be made simpler as a result.
  • Compatibility: Circuit switching may be utilized with various networks and applications because it is compatible with various devices and protocols. This renders the technology adaptable to several industries and scenarios.

Disadvantages of Circuit Switching

The following are some of Circuit switching drawbacks: 

  • The process of connection takes time.
  • Dedicated channel setup requires more bandwidth.
  • Because the connection is intended for circuit switching, it cannot send any other data, even if the channel is available.
  • Limited Flexibility: Because circuit switching necessitates a dedicated circuit between the communication devices, it is not very adaptable. The network's flexibility is limited because the circuit cannot be used Waste of Resources for any other purpose until the transmission is finished.
  • Resource Waste: Even if no data is transferred, circuit switching reserves network resources and bandwidth for the duration of the communication. As a result, resources are wasted, and the network is not used effectively.
  • Expensive: Because circuit switching necessitates dedicated communication routes, which can be expensive to set up and maintain, it is an expensive technology. Because of this, small-scale networks and applications find it less practicable.
  • Susceptible to Failure: Circuit switching depends on a specific communication line, so it is prone to failure. The entire conversation is interrupted if the path fails. Compared to other networking technologies like packet switching, this renders it less dependable.
  • Not appropriate for bursty traffic: Circuit switching, which is the irregular data transmission at random intervals, is inappropriate for bursty traffic. This is because each communication has its circuit, which can create delays and wasteful resource usage.

Conclusion

In conclusion, landlines and conventional communications networks are based on circuit switching. The current internet is built on packet switching. Everyone has benefits and drawbacks. Additionally, there are instances where they overlap, such as when a packet-switching network creates a connection-oriented data transfer protocol by imitating circuit-switching technology.

Packet switching is used by most phone services and the internet today. However, circuit-switched traffic was intended for the majority of legacy networks. This disparity may be closed with the use of new optical routing architecture.