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Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

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Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking?

Features of GSM

What is GSM?

The acronym GSM indicates the Global System for Mobile Communications. GSM is an open, digital cellular technology for mobile communication. It employs four separate frequency bands: 845 MHz, 910 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 1900 MHz. It combines FDMA and TDMA.

  • In the early 1970s, Bell Laboratories developed a cell-based portable radio technology that paved the way for GSM.
  • GSM is the acronym of a standardisation organization formed in 1982 to develop a single European mobile phone standard.
  • GSM is the most commonly acknowledged telecommunications standard, with global implementation.
  • GSM uses circuit-switched technology that separates each 200 kHz channels in eight 25 kHz time slots. Most of the world's GSM networks use the mobile communications bands 900 MHz - 1800 MHz. In the United States, GSM operates on the 850 MHz & 1900 MHz bands.
  • GSM accounts for more than 70% of global digital cellular customers.
  • GSM uses the narrow-band Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technology to transmit signals.
  • GSM was built with digital technology. It can transport data speeds ranging from 64 bits per second to 120 Mbps.
  • GSM now serves over one billion mobile customers in over 210 nations across the world.
  • GSM provides phone and data services ranging from basic to high, including roaming. Roaming refers to the ability to make use of your GSM cell phone in another GSM service.
  • GSM converts and compresses data before sending it along a channel with additional stream of user data, each with its own timeslot.

GSM has the following distinct cell sizes:

  • Macro: In this kind of cell, the Base Station antenna is placed.
  • Micro: The antenna height in this kind of cell is lower than the normal roof level.
  • Pico: Small cells with diameters of a few meters.

Why GSM?

The following are the aspects of GSM that contribute to its success and widespread adoption:

  • Improved spectrum efficiency.
  • International roaming
  • Low-cost mobile devices & base stations (BSs)
  • High-quality speaking
  • Compatible with the ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) and other telephone provider services.
  • Support for new services.

Features of GSM


  • After the 1980s, the number of mobile system networks utilized increased, and those networks were incompatible with one another.
  • As the number of diverse networks grows, a central hub or network to control these systems is required.
  • As a result, GSM was used in a variety of countries and was coordinated with their own systems. As a result, mobile systems are widespread and interoperable in these countries.
  • This technique adds value to the many devices and apps that use the GSM network.
  • As a result, a vast number of devices are produced at various costs, operations, and firms that manufacture these modules in bulk.
  • It reduces the cost for mobile consumers because various components are accessible at different costs.
  • GSM compatibility

Noise Resistant GSM Features

  • In mobile communication systems such as TAC NMT, the MS configures the cell sites via radio wave signals.
  • This approach provided high-quality sound and features sound-sensitive behaviour.
  • Some of the factors stated above can cause sound or noise to interfere with the original signal.
  • Ignition of the car.
  • Because of the matching of similar frequencies.
  • Frequency interference from a nearby cell.
  • Background radio noise disturbs the transmitting signal.
  • To tackle these challenges, digital methods are used in the GSM system.
  • We can manipulate information using digital signals and improve safety using error assessment and fault removal technologies.
  • As a result, signals transmitted by GSM can withstand a wide range of defects.
  • This standard states that even in poor situations, the needed signal can be produced with high quality and frequency accuracy.

Flexible Behaviour

  • In the event of air interference, a separate RF carrier is required to facilitate interlinking between the mobile user and the cell site, necessitating the use of different RF hardware.
  • According to the needed channels, hardware components are required in the results, making the procedure time-consuming and costly.
  • The gadgets used at GSM are regulated using various software. The system variation may be done quickly and with less time and labour.
  • There are eight users who are regulated by the usage of single bearers and the necessity for fewer components.
  • The enhancement given by the 1/2 voice channel mobile phones is the adoption of innovative techniques that allow 1/2 information to be sent via air interference.
  • The usage of the 1/2 rate allows sixteen users to be served on a single carrier, improving system capacity.
  • GSM demonstrates adaptive behaviour for international roaming. This technique allows us to connect with calls to people all around the world while using the sim card from another nation.

GSM Standardised Open Interface

  • Every mobile system's gadget is produced by a single manufacturer.
  • Is because the equipment was designed to communicate with other devices made by other manufacturers.
  • This condition is improving for device developers and high-priced products.
  • As a result, mobile consumers and network providers face significant costs.
  • This circumstance is distinct in the case of GSM, which employs a signal interface module with C7 and X.25 capabilities.
  • It means that network builders can select many manufacturers for various hardware components.
  • GSM sectors are very competitive, and makers must ensure that their functioning components are reasonably priced.
  • With such network, the inventor provided a high level of flexible behaviour in an environment where elements exist.

GSM Offers Security

  • The primary concern for use operators is the protection of their data. In the instance of various networks, the primary elements.
  • In this age, it was a problem that over 20% of data was lost.
  • Now, various characteristics are used in GSM to improve security.
  • The method now includes an indicator for ME or MS.
  • Each manufacturer assigns a specific number. When the device connects a call, the mobile database may monitor it.
  • A customer is set up through the use of SIM cards, allowing the network to monitor Mobile subscribers on the database system.
  • The SGM also has facilities for signal encryption at the air interface level.
  • There are several encryption points that exist to meet the needs of the users.
  • The use of identification for mobile subscribers and mobile equipment, as well as the application of cryptography and digital encoding, made it impossible to access the call.

GSM Flexible Handover Procedures

  • This procedure occurs when a cell phone user switches cells, changing the radio signal from the old to the new.
  • To maintain call operations, MS switches between cell into cell and channels to channel. When GSM is available, the call handover mechanism is designed.
  • Although the network used by GSM is complicated when compared to other systems, the flexibility of the GSM method provides consumers with high-quality services.

Comprehensive coverage and worldwide roaming

GSM has significant international coverage because to a network of mobility agreements among GSM network providers. This extensive coverage enables GSM users to travel worldwide while utilizing their own cell number in many countries.

High-quality Voice Calls

GSM networks rely on powerful digital signal processing units to deliver high-quality voice calls. This technique minimizes noise and increases speech clarity, resulting in a better user experience.

SMS and Data Services

GSM pioneered the idea of SMS (Short Messaging Service), which enabled users to send and get text messages. It additionally delivers data services, which allow for internet access and multimedia content delivery.

Some other Features of GSM technology

  • GSM technology has several advantages because it is the world's leading mobile communication technology. It is equipped with high-speed unified data, audio data, fax, mail, & SMS capabilities. Let's look at some additional GSM technology characteristics, which are described below. 
  • Increases subscriber throughput in the provided spectrum.
  • Supports smaller handsets.
  • Quick call setup.
  • Call forwarding, hold time, and a conference call feature are all supported.
  • Use the exact same phone across many networks.
  • Allows for 9600 bps data transmission and receiving across GSM networks.
  • Encrypted conversion cannot be accessed.
  • Enables calling number recognition presentation.
  • The short messaging service lets GSM subscribers to send and receive character text messages.
  • Supports complete international roaming capabilities.
  • Compatibility to ISDN for supplemental services.
  • SIM phone book management.
  • Supports fixed dialing numbers (FDN).
  • Real-time calendar with alarm capabilities.
  • Increased spectrum efficiency.
  • Low-cost mobile handsets and base stations.
  • Supports new services.
  • Share this via email or blog!
  • Share via Twitter or Facebook.
  • Share on Pinterest.
  • Supports international roaming.
  • Clear voice clarity.
  • Supports various portable devices.
  • Spectral/frequency efficiency
  • Handheld gadgets that run on little power.
  • Easy access to the network
  • International ISDN compatibility.
  • Low service costs.

Advantages of GSM

  • Because GSM service is available in more than 200 countries, it offers global roaming to its customers.
  • GSM is particularly secure since its devices and services cannot be easily replicated.
  • It has significant global coverage.
  • Clear conversations and effective utilization of spectrum.
  • Compatible with a broad range of phones and attachments.
  • Advanced features include messages that are brief, caller ID, phone hold, and call forwarding.
  • Compatible with ISDN and other telephone provider services.

Disadvantages of GSM

  • The main drawback of GSM is that several users utilize the same bandwidth. This may generate interference, which results in bandwidth limiting.
  • The other downside of GSM is the fact that it might generate electrical interference. That is why sensitive environments such as hospitals and airplanes need mobile phones to be switched off, as they can cause interference with hospital and aviation equipment.


In conclusion, GSM has had a significant impact on the field of mobile communications. Its technical achievements have not only revolutionized the way we interact, but also paved the road for future advancements in this field. As we strive to push the frontiers of mobile technology, GSM's legacy will surely be an important component of our interconnected world.