Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

What is Ethernet in Computer Networks


The Ethernet protocol was created in 1973 at Xerox PARC by Robert Metcalfe and colleagues as a wired communication system that connects computers across a network. Also known as Alto Aloha Network, this is a popular local area network protocol. It connects an initial area network to a wide area network.

What is Ethernet and Network Communication Fundamentals

Ethernet is a networking technology that consists of the computer chip, port, protocol, and connection required to connect a desktop or laptop to a local area network (LAN) for fast data transfer using fibre optic or coaxial cables. The definition, operation, and main applications of Ethernet are explained in this article.

It offers an easy-to-use interface that makes it easier to connect many devices, such as PCs, switches, and routers. A local area network (LAN) that allows users to communicate amongst all connected devices may be built with simply a router and a few Ethernet connections. This is a result of the Ethernet ports seen in laptops, where cables are entered and connected to routers on the other end.

The majority of Ethernet devices are compatible with slower-running devices and Ethernet connections. The weakest components, however, will decide the connection speed.

In many places, Ethernet has taken the lead over wireless networks, yet wired networking still uses Ethernet more often. Compared to wireless networks, wired networks are more dependable and less prone to interference. This is the main justification for why so many companies and institutions still use Ethernet.

In 1998, Ethernet celebrated its 25th anniversary, and as technology developed, it underwent various changes. Ethernet's capabilities grow and change, and it is constantly redesigned. It is currently one of the network technologies most commonly utilized globally.

What was the Evolution of Ethernet?

David Boggs and Robert Metcalfe led a team at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre (PARC) that developed Ethernet in the early 1970s. It was approved as a standard by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 1983.

In a 1973 document he prepared for Xerox PARC, Metcalfe formulated the concept of Ethernet, which served as the basis for the network's first development. Metcalfe developed Ethernet based on an earlier networking project called the Aloha system, which was initiated at the University of Hawaii in 1968. In 1973, Metcalfe renamed the system Ethernet after concluding that it had outlived its original name, Alto Aloha Network.

Four years later, Metcalfe and Boggs would successfully trademark Ethernet technology alongside Charles Thacker, Butler Lampson, and their colleagues at Xerox.

Xerox, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Intel worked together in 1980 to develop the first 10 Mbps Ethernet standard. Meanwhile, the IEEE Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LAN/MAN) Standards Committee was developing an Analogous Open standard. The LAN/MAN committee formed an Ethernet subcommittee and gave it the number 802.3. The initial 802.3 thick Ethernet specifications were officially published in 1985 after being ratified by the IEEE in 1983.

How is Ethernet Operated?

The IEEE 802.3 standard is based on the star topology, or linear bus, used by the Ethernet protocol. This protocol operates between the physical layer and data link layer, the first two layers in the OSI network hierarchy. The logical link control tier and the medium access control (MAC) tier are the two separate levels that make up the data connection layer in Ethernet.

In a network system, sending data packets from one node to another is the main function of the data connection layer. CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) is an access technique used by Ethernet that allows each computer to listen to the connection before sending data over the network.

Ethernet uses frames and packets to transport data as well. The frame includes the following information in addition to the delivered data payload:

  1. The sender and recipient's physical addresses, as well as their MAC
  2. Data with error correction to pinpoint gearbox issues
  3. Details on the quality of service and virtual LAN (VLAN) tagging (QoS)

Each frame is packed in packets that include several bytes of data to establish the connection and determine the frame's start point.

Essential Elements of an Ethernet Connection

The following are included in an Ethernet connection: 

  • The ethernet protocol: It was created by Xerox during the 1970s. As previously mentioned, it is a set of standards that control the data transmission between Ethernet components.
  • The Ethernet port: Also referred to as jacks or sockets, Ethernet ports are holes in computer network equipment that Ethernet cables may be plugged into. Cables with RJ-45 connections are supported. Most computers have an Ethernet port that is used to attach the device to a wired connection. An Ethernet network adapter, often referred to as an Ethernet card, that is installed on the motherboard is connected to a computer's Ethernet port. To accommodate different wired network devices, a router may include several Ethernet ports.
  • Ethernet network adapter: An Ethernet adapter is a chip or card that slides into a motherboard slot to connect a computer to a local area network (LAN). These were formerly only utilized with desktop computers, but Ethernet is now included in laptop and desktop motherboard chipsets.
  • An Ethernet cable: It connects your computer to a modem, router, or network switch. It is sometimes referred to as a network cable. The internal cabling, plastic jacket, and RJ45 connector make up the Ethernet cable.

Ethernet Network Types

Typically, an Ethernet network operates within a 10-kilometre radius. An expansion of fibre optic cable greatly increases the network's coverage area. Following are a few varieties of Ethernet networks:

1. Fast Ethernet: This kind of Ethernet protocol, which has the implied ability to transport or accept data at a rate of about 100 Mbps, is often supported by a CAT5 or crooked cable. If a device, such as a camera, laptop, or another device, is linked to a network, it functions at 100Base and 10/100Base on the fibre side of the connection. The three orders of Fast Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX, and 100BASE-T4.

2. Gigabit Ethernet: Data is sent over this kind of network at a high speed of around 1000 Mbps, or 1 Gbps. Every pair in the crooked brace string contributes to the speed at which data is sent. Systems that employ CAT5e or other sophisticated lines for video calling make extensive use of this sort of network. Gigabit Ethernet is more prevalent in today's ultramodern world.

3. 10-Gigabit Ethernet: This network is significantly faster and more sophisticated, with a data transfer rate of 10 gigabits per second. It also uses optical fibre lines and twisted-brace lines (CAT6a or CAT7). Fibre optic connections allow for nearly infinite expansion of this network.

4. Switch Ethernet: This kind of network may have a switch or hub connected to it, which improves speed by allowing each workstation to have a distinct 10Mbps connection rather than sharing the medium. It supports 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps for fast Ethernet and 1 Gbps to 10 Gbps for the rearmost Ethernet.

Important Applications for Ethernet

In today's hyper-connected digital environment, Ethernet is almost a universal technology. This is a result of this:

1. Enhances user experience with the Internet: Many people install Ethernet connections in their houses when the speed of their wireless Wi-Fi data connection is inadequate. Ethernet is usually utilized when connecting many devices in a wide-area network (WAN) or local area network (LAN).

2. Provides connections with high bandwidth: Ethernet can carry data at speeds of 10, 100, 1000, 10,000, 40,000, and 100,000 megabits per second (Mbps). Bandwidths are now measured in gigabits per second (Gbps). However, they were originally defined in megabits per second (Mbps) when Ethernet was first developed.

3. Increases security: Compared to Wi-Fi, Ethernet has the benefit of being more secure. The data sent over the radio is accessible to everyone within the range of a Wi-Fi hotspot. The information is susceptible to theft as radio signals are used to distribute it. Ethernet-supplied data, on the other hand, is limited to local area networks.

Drawbacks of Ethernet

Using an Ethernet connection can have certain drawbacks, even though Ethernet offers many benefits. The following are some drawbacks of Ethernet:

  1. Expandability: The goal is generally shorter and smaller distances. However, if you wish to grow the network, you will incur additional fees, and they take time with Ethernet. Crosstalk can occur when lengthy lines are used.
  2. Connections: Only Ethernet-based connections are available. Only one device may be connected to a single Ethernet connection; additional lines are required if you need to connect more than one item.
  3. Mobility: There needs to be more mobility. When a gadget needs to sit in a certain location, Ethernet is the best option.

Care must be taken when troubleshooting Ethernet issues. Determining which network wire is malfunctioning is challenging.