Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Model

OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography

Misc

Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network

Analog Transmission

Digital to Analog Transmission

The data is sent one device to another via analog carrier, and firstly it is converted into the analog signals. It modifies the analog signals to represent the digital data. This diagram shows the relationship between the digital-to-analog modulation process and the resulting analog signal.

Analog Transmission

The analog transmission defines the three basic methods:

  1. ASK (Amplitude Shift-Keying)
  2. FSK (Frequency Shift-Keying)
  3. PSK (Phase Shift-Keying)

The fourth analog transmission is a combination of Amplitude shift keying and Phase shift keying, and that is called as the quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM).

Analog Transmission

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

ASK is a type of modulation that reflects the amplitude of a carrier to the digital data as a variation. Frequency and phase remain constant even when the amplitude changes.

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

FSK is a type of modulation that reflects the frequency of a carrier to the digital data as a variation. The duration of a signal element is constant for a modulated signal, but when a signal element changes, the next signal element changes. For all signal elements are remain constant of the amplitude and phase.

Phase Shift Keying (PSK)

PSK is a type of modulation that reflects the phase of a carrier to the digital data as a variation. Amplitude and frequency remain constant even when the phase changes. PSK is more popular than ASK or FSK at today.

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

The combination of the ASK and PSK is called as the Quadrature amplitude modulation. The QAM is many types of variations possible.

Analog to Analog Transmission

It is the representation of the analog data by the analog signal. Modulation is required if only one bandpass channel is available to us. The best example of analog to analog transmission is a radio system. Each signal produces the analog signal.

There are three ways to achieve the analog-to-analog conversion:  

  1. Amplitude Modulation (AM)
  2. Frequency Modulation (FM)
  3. Phase Modulation (PM)
Analog Transmission

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

The AM is a type of modulation that changes the high-frequency carrier signal into amplitudes of the modulating signal. The frequency and phase have the same for the carrier signal, but amplitude changes the data. The envelope of the carrier is the modulation signal.

The total AM bandwidth can be defined by the bandwidth of the audio signal: BAM = 2B.

Analog Transmission

Frequency Modulation (FM)

In this transmission, the frequency of the carrier signal is modulated to changing the voltage level of the modulating signal. The top amplitude and phase of the carrier are constant, but as the information signal's amplitude changes, as such, the frequency of the carrier changes.

The total FM bandwidth can be defined by the bandwidth of the audio signal: BFM = 2(1 * ?) B.

Analog Transmission

Phase Modulation (PM)

In this transmission, the phase of the carrier signal is modulated to changing the voltage level of the modulating signal. The top amplitude and frequency of the carrier are constant, but as the information signal's amplitude changes, as such, the phase of the carrier changes.

The total FM band-width can be defined by the bandwidth of the audio signal: BPM = 2(1 + ?) B.

Analog Transmission