Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network

Basic Networking Devices


A hub is the most common networking device which is used to connect a lot of computers or networking devices. It works on the physical layer in the OSI model. It is used to increase the size of networks. There are multiple ports in the hub shown in below diagram.

When we send the data from one device to another device, then the hub doesn't check the destination. Hub sends that data to all connected devices, and then the receiver receives the data, and other devices discard the data. It is used to connect devices in the star topology. Shown in below Hub.

Basic Networking Devices

There are two types of the hub.

  1. Active Hub
  2. Passive Hub

Active Hub: In Active Hub, It regenerates the signal as well as increase the signal.It does require the power supply. These are also called as a Multiport Repeater.

Passive Hub: In Passive Hub, It does not regenerate the signal. Therefore, it does not require a power supply.

Advantages of Hub

  • Hub improves performance, especially for distributed traffic and large file transfers.
  • It enables PCI computers to perform at their best.

Disadvantages of Hub

  • It is not suitable for large networks because they have limited port.
  • Hub can't control the data traffic.


The switch is very similar to a hub. It is a device that has multiple ports. The switch accepts the ethernet connections from the network. The switch is more intelligent than a hub because the switch is used to store the physical addresses that are connected to it. The physical addresses are called MAC addresses in the table of the switch. Shown in below switch.

Basic Networking Devices

In the switch, the data packet is sent to the destination directly with the help of the MAC address.


A repeater is an electronic device which operates only in the physical layer.

It receives the data signal and regenerates the signal at higher power and sends it forward. The repeater then sends the refreshed signal. It can replicate and regenerate both digital and analog signals.

Basic Networking Devices

There are two types of Repeater

  1. Analog repeater
  2. Digital repeater

The analog repeater only amplifies the signal, whereas the digital repeater is reconstructed the signal and forward by removing errors from it.


NIC stands for Network Interface Card, which is a piece of computer hardware. It is used to connect the computer to a computer network. It allows users to connect either via wires or wirelessly. It is also called Network Interface Controller, Network adapter, LAN adapter, and Physical Network interface. The figure given below illustrates the diagram of NIC.

Basic Networking Devices


The bridge is a computer networking device which works to connect the same type of protocol. It operates on the Physical layer and Data link layer of the OSI model. In the physical layer, it regenerates the signal which is received. In the data link layer, the bridge is to check the MAC addresses of "source and destination" in the frame. A bridge has the filtering capability. The bridge checks the destination address of a frame, and it decides from which outgoing PORT the frame should be sent it.

Advantages of the Bridge

  • Reliability
  • Manageability
  • Scalability

Disadvantages of the Bridge

  • A bridge can't filter out broadcast traffic.
  • Only two networks can be connected with a bridge.


The router is a networking device that connects two or more networks together. It transfers data packets between the computer networks. It decides the best way for a packet to transfer its destination. It works on the three-layer (physical, data-link, and network layers) of the OSI model. Generally, Router operates to connect various types of networks.