Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network

Process-to-Process Delivery

Process-to-Process Delivery: A transport-layer protocol's first task is to perform process-to-process delivery. A process is an entity of the application layer which uses the services of the transport layer. Two processes can be communicated between the client/server relationships.

Process-to-Process Delivery

Client/Server Paradigm

There are many ways to obtain the process-to-process communication, and the most common way is through the client/server paradigm. A process is called a client on the local-host. Usually, the remote host is needed services on the processes, that is called server. The same name applies to both processes (client and server). IP address and port number combination are called socket address, and that address defines a process and a host.

Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

Multiplexing: At the sender site, multiple processes can occur, and those processes are required to send packets. It is a technique that combines multiple processes into one process.

Demultiplexing: At the receiver site, it is a technique that separates many processes.

Process-to-Process Delivery

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP was developed by David P Reed in 1980. It is a connection-less and unreliable protocol. This means when the data transfer occurs; this protocol does not establish the connection between the sender and receiver. The receiver does not send any acknowledgment of the receiving data. It sends the data directly. In the UDP, the data packet is called datagram. UDP does not guarantee your data that will reach its destination or not. It does not require that the data reach the receiver in the same order in which the sender has sent the data.

Transmission Control Protocol

TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. It was introduced in 1974. It is a connection-oriented and reliable protocol. It establishes a connection between the source and destination device before starting the communication. It detects whether the destination device has received the data sent from the source device or not. If the data received is not in the proper format, it sends the data again. TCP is highly reliable because it uses a handshake and traffic control mechanism. In TCP protocol, data is received in the same sequencer in which the sender sends the data. We use the TCP protocol services in our daily life, such as HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, FTP, SMTP, etc.

Difference between UDP and TCP

UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol.TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol.
UDP sends the data directly to the destination device.TCP establishes a connection between the devices before transmitting the data.
It is a connection-less protocol.It is a connection-oriented protocol.
  UDP is faster than the TCP protocol.  TCP is slower than the UDP protocol.
It is an unreliable protocol.It is a reliable protocol.
It has not a sequence number of each byte.It has a sequence number of each byte.