Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

Stream Control Transmission Protocol: SCTP stands for Stream Control Transmission Protocol. SCTP was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It is a reliable message-oriented protocol of the transport layer. It provides the best features of the TCP and UDP. It is designed for specific applications, such as multimedia.

SCTP Services

  1. It provides process-to-process communication like UDP and TCP.
  2. It allows the multi-stream service in every connection of device that is called association. In the device, if one connection is blocked, the other connection may still deliver that data.
Stream Control Transmission Protocol
  • It offers a full-duplex service like TCP, where the data can flow both directions at the same time.
  • It uses the acknowledgment (ACK) mechanism to validate the data delivery.

SCTP Packet Format

The SCTP packet contains a general header and a group of blocks that is called chunks. There are two types of chunks in the SCTP packet: control chunks and data chunks. The first chunk of the packet maintains the association, and the second chunk of the packet carries the user data. The control chunks arrive in the packet before the data chunks.

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

The general-header format of the SCTP is shown below.

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

In the general header, there are four fields.

  • Source Port Address: The size of the source port address is 16 bits. It defines the port number of the process that is sending the packet.
  • Destination Port address: The size of the destination port address is 16 bits. It defines the port number of the process that is receiving the packet.
  • Verification Tag: The size of the verification tag is 32 bits. This field is used to check that the packet receives from the correct sender or not.
  • Checksum: The size of the checksum is 32 bits.

Comparison of SCTP, TCP, and UDP

Sequence data deliveryNoYesYes
Allows half-closed connectionN/AYesNo
Application PDU bundlingNoYesYes
Congestion ControlNoYesYes
Application PDU fragmentationNoYesYes
Preserve message boundariesYesNoYes
Partial reliable data transferNoNoOptional
Selective AcknowledgementsNoOptionalYes


Congestion: If the network load is more than the network capacity, such a situation is called the congestion.

Congestion control: It refers to the mechanisms that are used to control the congestion and keep the traffic below the capacity of the network. Congestion control is divided into two categories: Open-loop and Close-loop, which are shown below in the figure.

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

Open-loop congestion control

The open-loop congestion control strategies are implemented to stop congestion before it occurs. The congestion control is controlled by either source or destination. Open-loop congestion control is divided into some categories. 

  1. Retransmission Policy: It is the policy in which the packet is sent again. When the sender perceives that the transmitted packet is lost, the sender sends that packet again.
  2.  Window Policy: In window policy, uses the selective repeat window method to control the congestion. 
  3. Discarding Policy: The less sensitive packets can be discarded by the routers to ensure congestion.

Closed-loop congestion control

The closed-loop congestion control strategies attempt to reduce congestion after it happens. Closed-loop congestion control is divided into some categories: Back-pressure, Choke-point, Implicit signaling, and Explicit signaling.