Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Model

OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography

Misc

Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network

TCP/IP model in Computer Network

TCP/IP model

The TCP/IP model was developed by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) in the 1970s. Therefore, the TCP/IP model is not the same as the OSI model. The original TCP/IP model has defined the four layers: Host-To-Network layer, Internet layer, Transport layer, and Application layer. But now it contains five layers Physical layer, Data link layer, Network layer, Transport layer, and Application layer.

TCP/IP model Computer Network

Physical layer

The physical layer is the 1st layer of the TCP/IP. At the Physical layer, is communication between two nodes or hops. The physical layer at the TCP/IP supports all standard and established protocols. At this layer, the unit of the communication layer is a single bit.

Data-link layer

The data link layer is the 2nd layer of the TCP/IP. At the Data link layer, is communication between two nodes or hops. The Data-link layer at the TCP/IP supports all standard and established protocols. At this layer, the unit of communication is the frame.

Network layer

The network layer is the 3rd layer of the TCP/IP. This layer acts as the Network Layer of the OSI Model. The main feature of this layer is provided to connectionless communication in the network. The network layer at the TCP/IP model follows the internetworking protocol. Often defined as the network layer is known as the internet layer.

The common protocols used within the Network protocols

  • Internetworking Protocol: The Internetworking Protocol (IP) is a mechanism used by TCP / IP for communication. Internetworking protocol is an unreliable protocol for best-effort delivery service. The term of best effort means that IP provides no tracking or error checking. It is a connectionless protocol. At the Internetworking protocol, the data is transport in packets form that is called as the datagram. Each packet is transported separately.
  • ARP (Address Resolution Protocol): Address Resolution Protocol is used to connect logical addresses to physical addresses. ARP protocol is used to detect the physical address of a node considered to have an IP address.
  • RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol): RARP is the opposite of ARP. The RARP allows a host to detect its IP address when it only knows its physical address. RARP is used when a computer is linked to a new network or when any diskless computer is booted.
  • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol): The ICMP is a mechanism which sends the message to the sender about the query and error reporting. The hosts and gateways use it to transfer the information about the datagram problems back to the sender.
  • IGMP (Internet Group Message Protocol): The IGMP is used to facilitate the transfer of the message to the group of the receiver at the same time.

Transport layer

The transport layer is the 4th layer of the TCP/IP. The transport layer at the TCP/IP model is responsible for managing end-to-end communications. The transport layer provides three protocols UDP, TCP, and SCTP. UDP and TCP are responsible for the delivery of messages from one process to another process. The SCTP protocol was developed later to meet the needs of newer applications.

  • UDP (User Datagram Protocol): UDP is a simple transport layer communication protocol. It is a connection-less protocol. When data transfer occurs, this protocol does not establish the connection between the sender and the receiver. UDP is an Unreliable Protocol.
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): TCP is a Connection-Oriented Protocol. When data transfer occurs, this protocol does establish the connection between the sender and the receiver. TCP is a reliable protocol.
  • SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol): SCTP is the combination of the best features of the TCP and UDP protocol. SCTP was introduced to support newer applications over the internet, such as video calling and voice messages.

Application layer

In the TCP/IP model, the application layer is equivalent to the combination of the session layer, presentation layer, and application layer in the OSI model. The application layer is related to providing network service to applications.

The common protocols used within the Application Layer are, such as Telnet, FTP, HTTP, SMTP, POP3, and NFS.