Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

Transmission Control Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol: TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. It was introduced in 1974. It is a connection-oriented and reliable protocol. It establishes a connection between the source and destination device before starting the communication. It detects whether the destination device has received the data sent from the source device or not. If the received data is not in the proper format, it sends the data again. TCP is highly reliable because it uses a handshake and traffic control mechanism. In the TCP protocol, the receiver receives the data in the same sequence in which the sender sends it. We use the TCP protocol services in our daily life, such as HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, FTP, SMTP, etc.

Transmission Control Protocol

Importance of UDP

  • The TCP protocol is used to transfer data where, you need accuracy and reliability rather than the speed.
  • Both TCP and UDP can check for errors, but only TCP can fix the error because it can control the traffic and flow of data.

TCP Segment Format

In the TCP, the data packet is called a segment. The size of the header in the segment is 20 to 60 bytes. The segment format of TCP is shown below the figure.

Transmission Control Protocol
  • Source Port Address: The size of the source port is 16 bits. It is used to define the port address of the application that sends the segment.
  • Destination Port Address: The size of the destination port is 16 bits. The destination port is used to define the port address of the application that receives the segment.
  • Sequence Number: The size of the sequence number is 32 bits. It defines the unique number of the data in the segment.
  • Acknowledgment number: The size of the acknowledgment number is 32 bits.
  • Header Length: The size of the header length is 4 bits. It indicates the header of the application. The header length can be lies between 20 and 60 bytes. Therefore, the value of this field is 5 (5 × 4 = 20) and 15 (15 × 4 = 60).
  • Reserved: The size of this field is 6 bits. This field is for future uses.
  • Control Flag: The size of this field is 6 bits. It defines the six different control bits or flags, as shown in the figure.
Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
  • Window Size: The size of the window field is 16 bits. It defines the size of the sending window of the sender.
  • Checksum: The size of the checksum field is 16 bits. The checksum field is used for error control. It is mandatory in TCP.
  • Urgent Pointer: The size of the urgent pointer field is 16 bits, which is only required when the URG flag is set. It is used for urgent data in the segment.
  • Options and Padding: The size of options and padding field vary from 0 to 40 bytes.

Advantages of TCP

  1. Retransmission: In the TCP, when a data fail, this protocol sends that data again after a specific time.
  2. TCP can fix the error because it can control the flow-control and congestion control.
  3. TCP can easily detect the errors.
  4. In the TCP protocol, the receiver receives the data in the same sequencer in which the sender sends it.

Disadvantages of TCP

  1. The data transfer speed of the TCP protocol is less than the UDP protocol.
  2. TCP protocol cannot broadcast and multicast the message.