C Tutorial

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File Handling in C

File Handling is used to open, read, write, search and close file.  C files I/O functions handles data on secondary storage device. File handling function: There are varioushandling functions in C.

Function Operation
fopen() It is used to create a file.
fclose() It is used to create close an existing file.
getc() It is used to read a character from a file.
putc() It is used to write a character in file.
fprintf() It is used to write set of data in file.
fscanf() It is used to read set of data from file.
getw() It is used to read an integer from a file
putw() It is used to write an integer in file.

C fopen() function The fopen() function is used to open a file.The given syntax of file opening is. Syntax
FILE *fopen( const char * filePath, const char * mode );
Let us consider an example
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
    FILE *fp;
    fp = fopen("fileName.txt","w");
    return 0;
}
Here is filePath declare a variable as a pointer to the data type FILE. There are different type of modes that help us to access the file in the fopen() function.

Mode Description
r It is used to open a text file in read mode.
W It is used to open a text file in write mode.
a It is used to open a text file in append mode.
r+ It is used open a text file in read and write mode.
w+ It is used open a text file in read and write mode.
a+ It is used open a text file in read and write mode.
rb It is used open a binary file in read mode.
wb It is used open a binary file in write mode.
ab It is used open a binary file in append mode.
rb+ It is used open a binary file in read and write mode.
wb+ It is used open a binary file in read and write mode.
ab+ It is used open a binary file in read and write mode.

C fclose() function: The fclose() function is used to close a file . Following is the syntax of fclose() function Syntax:
char fclose( FILE *fp);
Example
#include<stdio.h>
int main(){
    FILE *fp;
    fp = fopen("fileName.txt","w");
    fprintf(fp, "%s", "Hello we are learning C langauge  from TutorialAndExample
.com");
    fclose(fp);
    return 0;
}
  • The above example will call the < filename> name.
  • The wis used to open for writing, and if the file does not exist then new file will be created.
  • The fprintf function writes text on the file.
  • The fclosefunction closed the file and reassesses the memory stream.
C getc() function In C language, getc() function is  library function that is used to read a character from a file. Synatx:
int getc( FILE * stream );
Example
#include<stdio.h>
int main(){
  FILE *fp = fopen("fileName.txt", "r");
  int ch = getc(fp);
  while (ch != EOF){
    /* To display the contents of the file on the screen */
    putchar(ch);
    ch = getc(fp);
  }
 if (feof(fp))
     printf("\n Reached the end of file.");
  else
     printf("\n Something gone wrong.");
  fclose(fp);
  getchar();
  return 0;
}
Cfputc() function In C language, fputc() function is used to write a character to the file. Syntax:
int fputc( int c, FILE * stream );
#include <stdio.h>
int main(){ 
   FILE *fp; 
   /* file open */
   fp = fopen("myfilee.txt", "w");   
   /* writing single character into file */
   fputc('a',fp);
   fclose(fp); 
}
C fprintf()function: The C printf() function is used  to write the characters into file. Syntax:
int fprintf(FILE *stream, const char *format [, argument, ...])
Example
#include <stdio.h>
main(){ 
   FILE *fp; 
   fp = fopen("myfilee.txt", "w"); 
   fprintf(fp, "Helloworld  file by fprintf...\n"); 
   fclose(fp);
}
C fscanf()function: The C fscanf() is used to read the characters from file. It reads a word from the file and returns EOF at the end of file. Syntax:
int fscanf(FILE *stream, const char *format [, argument, ...])
Example
#include <stdio.h>
int main(){ 
   FILE *fp; 
   char buff[255]; 
   fp = fopen("myfilee.txt", "r"); 
   while(fscanf(fp, "%s", buff)!=EOF){ 
   printf("%s ", buff ); 
   } 
   fclose(fp); 
}

C fputs() function C fputs() function is used to write a line of characters into file  and return outputs string to a stream. Syntax:
int fputs(const char *s, FILE *stream)
Example
#include<stdio.h>
int main(){ 
FILE *fp; 
fp=fopen("myfilee.txt","w"); 
fputs("Hello You are Good Programmer .",fp); 
fclose(fp); 
return 0;
}

C fgets() function The fgets() functionis used to read a line of character from file and get string from a stream. Syntax: char* fgets(char *s, int n, FILE *stream)  Example
#include
int main(){
FILE *fp;
char text[200];
fp=fopen("myfilee.txt","r");
printf("%s",fgets(text,100,fp));
fclose(fp);
return 0;
}
Output :
Hello You are Programmer



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