Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

Transmission Media

Transmission Media: The physical layer directly controls transmission media. A transmission medium is a way which transmits the data from one place to another. It carries the data from source to destination. For example, the air is the transmission medium for interaction between two peoples. For a written message, the transmission medium might be a mail carrier or airplane. The transmission media is also known as the communication channel. The transmission media is shows in diagram below.

Transmission Media

In this, peoples usually use the different types of wires and waves to transmit the data. Data is transmitted from one system to another system generally through electromagnetic energy.

Transmission Media

Generally, Transmission media can be divided into two types:

1. Guided Media

2. Unguided Media

Guided Media

Guided media is wired media. Guided media is a physical way to transmit the data from one place to another. Guided media is more secure. These types of networks use the cable to communicate.

Guided media is divided into three types of cable:

1. Twisted-pair cable

2. Coaxial cable

3. Fiber-optic cable.

Twisted-Pair Cable

Twisted-pair cable is a copper cable that is arranged in the spiral pattern to minimize the electromagnetic interference between adjacent pairs. It invented mainly for voice transmission. Twisted-Pair Cable is very cheaper than other cables. Twisted Pair cable is shown in diagram below.

Transmission Media

There are two types of Twisted-Pair cable used in a computer network.

1. Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable

2. Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable

The shielded twisted pairs of each cable are wrapped with the metallic foil to insulate the pair from the electromagnetic interference. It provides more security and transfer speed because this shield reduces the data's electromagnetic field.

Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable

The unshielded twisted pair’s cable is not wrapped with the metallic foil. This cable has wrapped with a plastic cover. It provides less security and transfer speed than the shielded twisted pair cable.

In this cable, data can transfer from 1 GB to 10 GBPS speed. This cable can travel data in the range between 100 to 150 meters usually.

Transmission Media

Advantages of Twisted-pair Cable

1. This cable is cheaper than the other cables.

2. This cable installation is very easy. It can be easily connected with a plug like RJ 45 (Registered Jack type 45).

3. This cable provides an easy connection to other cables.

Disadvantages of Twisted pair cable

1. If the distance of cable is greater than 100 m, high rate error increase in twisted pair cable.

2. It is a very thin cable so it can be easily broken.

3. This cable has low bandwidth, so it is not suitable for the broadband connection.

Coaxial cable

The coaxial cable is a copper cable made of four layers. The most inner layer of the cable is made of copper. The solid plastic covers the upper layer of copper cable. Its upper layer has a metallic foil and copper mesh that is called conductor. At the upper layer, it has a plastic cover that protects all of them. The coaxial cable data transfer speed is 5 Mbps. Coaxial cable is mostly used in cable TV and VCR.

The coaxial cable is used with the BNC connector that are many types such as the T-connector, barrel connector, and terminator. Shown in below Coaxial cable.

Transmission Media

There are two types of coaxial cable used in a computer network.

1. Thinnet coaxial cable

2. Thicknet coaxial cable

Thinnet coaxial cable

Thinnet coaxial cable is a thin cable. Thinnet coaxial cable is called Thin Ethernet. The diameter of this cable is 0.25 inches. It can cover only 185 m without a repeater.

Thicknet coaxial cable

Thicknet coaxial cable is thicker than the thinnet cable. Thicknet coaxial cable is called the Thick Ethernet. The diameter of this cable is 0.5 inches. It can cover only 500 m without a repeater. It also called 10Base5.

Advantages of Coaxial Cable

  1. It provides better bandwidth as compared to the twisted pair cable.
  2. It is simple to install.
  3. It provides higher data transfer speed as compared to the twisted pair cable.

Disadvantages of Coaxial Cable

  1. The maintenance cost is very expensive as compared to the twisted pair cable.
  2. If the cable breaks from anywhere, the entire network fails.
  3. It is more expensive than the twisted pair cable.

Fiber-Optic Cable

A fiber-optic cable is made of glass or plastic. It transmits signals in the form of light. It is expensive than all the other cables, and its data transfer speed is also higher than all the other cables. The figure given below illustrates the Fiber-Optic cable.

Transmission Media

In this cable, the transmission of data occurs in the form of light rather than the electric current, so this cable provides higher data transfer speed. Fiber optic cable data transfer speed range from 100 Mbps to 10 Gbps.

There are used various types of connectors in this cable, such as SC connector, ST connector, MT-RJ connector, etc.

Advantages of Fiber-Optic Cable

  1. It provides a very higher data transfer speed as compared to all the other cables.
  2. Fiber optic cables are lighter than twisted pair and coaxial cables.
  3. This cable is not prone to fire because it doesn't pass the electricity.

Disadvantages of Fiber-Optic Cable

  1. It is costly as compared to other cables for short distances.
  2. This cable is complex to install and maintain because it does not become available everywhere.


Unguided Media

The unguided media works on the electromagnetic wave. It does not use any physical conductor. It is also known as wireless media. The unguided signals can travel in three ways, such as Ground propagation, Sky propagation, and Line-of-sight propagation.

Transmission Media

Unguided media is divided into three types of wave:

  1. Radio Wave
  2. Micro Wave
  3. Infrared Wave

 Radio Wave

The frequencies of electromagnetic wave lies between 3 kHz and 1 GHz are known as the Radio wave. Radio waves are mostly omnidirectional. When an antenna sends the radio waves, they are transmitted those waves in all directions. This means that it can send and receive those waves which do not required the alliance. Radio waves are mostly used in multicast communication, such as television, FM radio, cordless phones, and paging systems. Shown in below omnidirectional.

Transmission Media

Micro Wave

Micro-waves are those electromagnetic waves whose frequency range lies from 1 GHz to 300 GHz. It is unidirectional. These waves move in the unidirectional from the sender to the receiver. This means that it can send and receive those waves which have required the alliance. Micro-waves are mostly used in unicast communication (one to one communication), such as microwave (oven), cellular telephone, and satellite network.

Infrared Wave

Infrared waves are those electromagnetic waves whose frequency range lies from 300 GHz to 400 THz. Infrared waves are mostly used for short-range communication, such as television remote, FM remote, AC remote, CCTV, and wireless keyboard or mouse.