Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network

Computer Network Topology: Bus, Star, Ring, Tree and Hybrid

Network Topology: The Computer network topology refers to the layout of connected devices on a network. The network topology is the combination by which computer or network devices interconnected to another device.

Significant types of network topology.

  • BUS Topology
  • Star Topology
  • Ring Topology
  • Mesh Topology
  • Tree Topology
  • Hybrid Topology

BUS Topology

In a Bus topology, all computer devices are connected through a single cable that is known as a backbone cable. Each device is directly interconnected to the backbone cable. Bus topology is easy to installation compared to another topology. It sends data only in a single direction. The figure is shown below. 

Network Topology

Advantages of Bus Topology

  1. It is very simple to install.
  2. It is less cable required to connect the devices compared to other topology.
  3. It is cost-effective.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology

  1. Complicated reconfiguration and fault detection.
  2. If any fault in backbone cable then stops all transmission.

Star Topology

In star topology, all device in the network is connected to a central device known as a Switch or Hub or Host Computer. The host computer is directly connected to each device. The host computer controls all devices. It has using Point to Point connection. The figure is shown below.

Network Topology

If a device wishes to send data to another device, it must first send the data to the host computer, and then the host computer sends that data to the other device. The host computer acts as a repeater for data flow.

Advantages of Star Topology

  1. In star topology, fewer cables are needed because each device only needs to be connected to a host computer or hub.
  2. It is simple to troubleshoot.
  3. If one device is a failed, so only that device is affected, and All remain devices active.
  4. Easy to detect failing devices because the device can be easily recognized.

Disadvantages of Star Topology

  1. This entire system depends on the host computer. If the host computer fails, then the whole network fails.
  2. Expensive to use.

Ring Topology

In-Ring Topology, there is no host or controlling computer. All devices are connected in a circular network structure; each computer is connected to its subordinate device. It is also called Circular Topology. The figure is shown below.

Network Topology

If a device wishes to send data to another device, it sends the data in one direction, each device in the ring topology has a repeater, if the data received is for another device, the repeater transmits this data until the device receives it.

Advantages to Ring Topology

  1. Easy to install.
  2. This topology works more efficiently and reliable because there is no host or controlling computer.
  3. Easy to detect failing devices because the device can be easily recognized.

Disadvantages of Ring Topology

  1. Failure a single device can cause an entire network is a failure.
  2. Its speed depends on the computers installed in the network. If the number of computers is lesser, then the speed is high, and if the number of computers is high, then the speed is low.

Mesh Topology

Each computer device is connected to all other devices on the network through a dedicated point-to-point connection in Mesh topology. If the cable in the route is broken, the nodes cannot communicate. One device must be connected with (n-1) devices.

In a mesh topology, if we have to connect n computers, we need (n*(n-1) / 2) cable or connections. The figure is shown below.

Network Topology

Advantages of Mesh Topology

  1. It is very robust. If anyone's connection gets damaged, they cannot affect others.
  2. It provides more privacy and security.
  3. It provides a dedicated connection between the devices.
  4. It's simple to detect the fault.

Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

  1. The number of wires and the number of I/O ports required are very large.
  2. Mesh topology is very expensive than the other topology.
  3. It is difficult to install and configure.

Tree Topology

A tree topology combines the Star and Bus topology features. It has a host computer like the star topology, and a single cable connects all the devices like a bus topology. This topology divides the network into multiple levels. It is also known as a hierarchy topology. The figure is shown below.

Network Topology

Advantages of Tree Topology

  1. If sub-device is failed, only that device is affected, and all other devices remain active. 
  2. In a tree topology, it is easy to extend the network.
  3. It has point-to-point wiring for single devices.
  4. Error correction and error detection are easily done.

Disadvantages of Tree Topology

  1. Tree topology is very expensive than the other topology.
  2. If a node fails, then troubleshoot becomes difficult.
  3. Bulky wires are used in the tree topology.

Hybrid Topology

When two or more topologies are used to create a new topology, it is called a hybrid topology. Hybrid topology obtains the merits and demerits of every incorporating topology. The figure is shown below.

Network Topology

Advantages of Hybrid Topology

  1. If there is any fault in the network, it is easy to find its faulty device.
  2. It is a scalable topology that can be easily extended.
  3. A hybrid topology is useful for large corporations.
  4. It is reliable than the other topology, but at the same, it is a costly topology.

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology

  1. Installation and configuration are complicated than the other topology.
  2. It is a very expensive topology.
  3. It is challenging to design the architecture of the Hybrid topology.