Full Form of IPC

IPC stands for Indian Penal Code. It is the criminal code that covers all aspects of criminal law. IPC was prepared by the First Law Commission in 1834 during British Raj. At that time, Macaulay was the Chairman of the Law Commission. However, the law assented on 6 October 1860, but it was implemented on 1 January 1862. The IPC Law is applicable all over India except Jammu and Kashmir, which is exempted from this law.

Full form of IPC

Chapters and Sections of Indian Penal Code

Further, the Penal Code is divided into 23 chapters which comprise 511 sections. It starts with an introduction followed by explanations and exceptions as well as covers a wide range of offenses.

The chapters and sections of the Indian Penal code as follows:

Chapter I        Sections (1 to 5) Introduction

Chapter II       Sections (6 to 52) General Explanations

Chapter III      Sections (53 to 75) Of Punishments

Chapter IV      Sections (76 to 106) General Exceptions

                       (Sections 96 to 106) Of the Right of Private Defense

Chapter V       Sections (107 t o 120) Of Abetment

Chapter VA     Sections (120A to 120B) Criminal Conspiracy

Chapter VI      Sections (121 to 130) Of Offences against the State

Chapter VII     Sections (131 to 140) Of Offences relating to the Army, Navy and Air Force

Chapter VIII    Sections (141 to 160) Of Offences against the public tranquility

Chapter IX      Sections (161 to 171) Of Offences by or relating to public servants

Chapter IXA   Sections (171A to 171I) Of Offences Relating to Elections

Chapter      Sections (172 to 190) Of Contempts of Lawful Authority of public servants

Chapter XI      Sections (191 to 229) Of False Evidence and Offences against public Justice

Chapter XII     Sections (230 to 263) Of Offences relating to Coin and Government Stamps

Chapter XIII   Sections (264 to 267) Of Offences relating to Weight and Measures

Chapter XIV    Sections (268 to 294) Of Offences affecting the Public Health, Safety,                                             Convenience, Decency and Morals

Chapter XV     Sections (295 to 298) Of Offences relating to Religion

Chapter XVI    Sections (299 to 377) Of Offences affecting the Human Body Sections

(299 to 311) Of Offences affecting Life including Murder, Culpable Homicide

Sections (312 to 318) of the causing of Miscarriage, Of Injury to Unborn Child, Of the Exposure, Of Infants, and of the Concealment of Births

Sections (319 to 338) Of Hurt

Sections (339 to 348) Of Wrongful restraint and Wrongful Confinement

Sections (349 to 358) of Criminal Force and Assault

Sections (359 to 374) of kidnapping, Abduction, Slavery and Forced Labour

Sections (375 to 377) Sexual Offences including Rape and Sodomy

Chapter XVII  Sections (378 to 462) Of Offences against Property

                          Sections (378 to 382) Of Theft

                           Sections (383 to389) Of Extortion

                           Sections (390 to 402) Of Robbery and Dacoity

                           Sections (403 to 404) Of Criminal Misappropriate of Property

                           Sections (405 to 409) Of Criminal Breach of Trust

                           Sections (410 to 414) Of the Receiving of Stolen Property

                           Sections (415 to 420) Of Cheating

                           Sections (421 to 424) Of Fraudulent Deeds and Disposition of Property

                           Sections (425 to 440) Of Mischief

                           Sections (441 to 462) Of Criminal Trespass

Chapter XVIII   Sections (463 to 489-E) Offences relating to Documents and property marks

                           Sections (463 to 477) Offences relating to Documents

                           Sections (478 to 489) Offences relating to Property and other marks

                         Sections (489a to 489E) Offences relating to Currency Notes and Bank Notes

Chapter XIX      Sections (490 to492) Of the Criminal Breach of Contracts of Service

Chapter XX          Sections (493 to 498) Of Offences related to marriage

Chapter XXA       Sections (498A) Of Cruelty by Husband or Relatives of husband

Chapter XXI         Sections (499 to 502) Of Defamation

Chapter XXII        Sections (503 to 510) Of Criminal intimidation, Insult and Annoyance

Chapter XXIII       Sections (511) Of Attempts to Commit Offences


Moreover, there are so many controversies for various sections like; for Section 377 Unnatural Offences (Sodomy), on 8 January 2018, the Supreme Court, after much deliberation, agreed to decriminalize the parts of section 377, which again criminalized same-sex relations on 6 September 2018. Likewise, some other sections which are in controversy are; attempt to Commit Suicide – Section 309, Adultery - Section 497, Death Penalty, etc.

Reformation and suggestion

However, there are also some suggestions for the reformation of the Law, like the Malimath committee submitted its report, in which they have recommended reforming several penal like, separation of investigation and prosecution, based on continental European Systems, etc.

Further, the Home Minister recently stated that there are several loopholes in the Indian Penal Code, which has been followed since the British era, so it needs amendment in order to increase the efficiency of the act.

Moreover, the India Penal Code is universally acknowledged as a cogently drafted code, as it survived for over 150 years without significant amendments.