# About Data Structures

## What exactly are data structures?

A data structure is a type of storage that is used to organise and store data. It is a method of organising data on a computer so that it may be easily accessible and modified.

It's essential to pick the correct data format for your project based on your requirements and project. Let us say, in case you wish to store data sequentially in memory, you may use the Array data structure.

In a nutshell, a data structure is a method of arranging data in a computer so that it may be successfully utilised.

To put it another way, keep these two basic equations in mind:

- Data Structures are formed by combining related data using permissible data operations.
- And Programs are formed by combining Algorithms Data Structures.

## Data Structure Types

In general, there are two types of data structures:

- Linear data structure
- Non-linear data structure

Let's take a closer look at each type.

## Linear data structure

The elements of linear data structures are organised one after the other in a sequential order. They are simple to construct since the pieces are placed in a specific order.

However, due of operational complications, linear data structures may not be the ideal solution when the program's complexity grows.

**Types of Linear Data Structure**

- Arrays
- Stacks
- Queues
- Linked List

**Non-Linear data structure**

Non-linear data structures have elements that are not in any particular order, unlike linear data structures. Instead, they're organised in a hierarchical structure, with each piece related to one or more others.

Non-linear data structures are further classified as graph and tree data structures.

**Types of Non-Linear Data Structure**

- Graphs
- Trees

## Data Structures: Linear vs. Non-linear

Let's look at the main distinctions between linear and non-linear data structures now that we've learned about them.

Linear Data Structures | Non-Linear Data Structures |

The data pieces are ordered sequentially, one after the other. | The data pieces are organised in a non-sequential fashion (hierarchical manner). |

All of the things are on a single layer. | The data pieces can be found at several tiers. |

It can be completed in a single run. That is, if we begin with the first element, we may traverse all of the elements in a single pass. | It takes several runs. That instance, if we begin with the first element, we may not be able to traverse all of the elements in a single pass. |

The use of RAM is inefficient. | Depending on the situation, various architectures use memory in a variety of efficient ways. |

The time complexity grows in direct proportion to the magnitude of the data. | The time complexity stays constant. |

Example: Arrays, Stack, Queue | Example: Tree, Graph, Map |

## Data Structures: Static and Dynamic

Static structures, as the name indicates, are composed of fixed, permanent structures and sizes at compile time. The array stores a certain quantity of reserve memory that has been predetermined by the programmer ahead of time. Dynamic structures have non-fixed memory capacity that can decrease or increase based on the programme and its execution needs. Furthermore, the location of the related memory might shift.

## Data Structures: Homogeneous and Non-Homogeneous

Homogenous data structures, like element collections in an array, are made up of the same data element type. The data in non-homogeneous structures, such as structures, may not have to be of the same type.

## The Relationship Between Data Types and Data Structures

To answer the issue of what is data structure, three essential data kinds must be understood.

**Abstract.**

The behaviour of abstract data defines it. Graphs, queues, stacks, and sets are all examples of this kind.

**Combined (or Compound).**

Composite data is made up of primitive data types that have been merged, such as arrays, classes, records, strings, and structs. They might also be made up of other composite kinds.

**Primitive.**

Primitive data, which includes Boolean, characters, integers, pointers, and fixed- and floating-point numbers, is categorised as fundamental data.

These data types serve as the foundation for data structures. Data types inform the interpreter or computer about how the programmer intends to use the data. Data analysts can also select from a variety of data structure categories. The key is to choose the structure that is most suited to your demands and environment.

## Why is Data Structure important?

Understanding the operation of each data structure is aided by knowledge of data structures. Based on it, you may choose the best data structures for your project.

This assists you in writing memory- and time-efficient code.

Data structures provide several benefits to IT-related operations, particularly as applications get more complicated and the amount of existing data grows. Here are some of the reasons why data structures are so important.

- They allow for faster processing rates. Large volumes of data necessitate quicker processing, and data structures aid in the organisation of data into forms that are simpler to work with and analyse.
- They make it easier to find info. Data structures arrange information into usable formats that make it easier to conduct the necessary searches.
- They can be reused. Once a data structure is implemented, it may be utilised everywhere. There is no reason to build a new structure. This feature saves both time and money.
- They make it simple to deal with various demands. A database is rarely accessed by a single person. Instead, hundreds, if not thousands, of people searching and interacting with a database is usual. Data structures organise information so that users don't have to search every item – they can quickly search only the data they need.

## Benefits of Data Structures

A data structure has the following advantages:

**Efficiency:**If the data structure used to implement a certain ADT is chosen correctly, the programme will be exceedingly efficient in terms of time and space.**Reusability:**The data structure is reusable, which implies that it can be used by numerous client applications.**Abstraction:**The level of abstraction is provided by the data structure given by an ADT. Because the client cannot see the internal workings of the data structure, it does not need to be concerned with implementation. Only the interface is visible to the client.

## Significant Operations

The following are the most frequent operations that may be done on data structures:

**Searching:**In a data structure, we may look for any element.**Sorting:**The elements of a data structure can be sorted in either ascending or descending order.**Insertion:**The new element can also be inserted into a data structure.**Updating:**We may also update the element by replacing it with another element.**Deletion:**To remove an element from a data structure, we can use the delete operation.

## Applications of Data Structures

Data structures have a wide range of uses, including:

**Storage**** of data.**

Data structures, such as describing attribute collections and related structures used in database management systems to store records, aid in effective data persistence.

**Data Transfer.**

TCP/IP packets can be used to exchange organised information specified by data structures between programmes.

**Management of Resources and Services**

Data structures like linked lists can help fundamental operating system resources and services accomplish tasks like file directory management, memory allocation, and processor scheduling queues.

**Scalability.**

Data structures are used by big data applications to organise and allot data storage across numerous dispersed storage sites. This function ensures scalability and performance.