C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++ std::fixed, std::scientific, std::hexfloat, std::defaultfloat in C++ StringStream in C++ for Decimal to Hexadecimal and back The OFFSETOF() macro in C++ Difference between std::next and std::advance in C++ Hiding of all overloaded methods with same name in base class in C++ C++ program to concatenate two strings using operator overloading Difference between array::fill() and array::swap() in C++ Difference between Friend Function and Virtual Function in C++ Semaphores in C++ Seekg in C++

10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know

In C++, programming provides developers with a wealth of tools and methods to improve their coding productivity, which is well-known for its performance and versatility. In the world of C++, knowing a few tips and tricks can greatly improve your programming skills.

The ternary operator, which may express conditional statements succinctly in a single line and improve code readability, is the first element on the list. After that, we'll look at the extent to which effective and efficient code can be by using the Standard Template Library's (STL) algorithms to significantly simplify intricate tasks. Furthermore, by automatically managing memory deallocation and avoiding frequent problems related to raw pointers, smart pointers like unique_ptr and shared_ptr improve memory management. The generation of highly optimized code is made possible by the complex but powerful approach of template meta-programming, which enables compile-time computation. The constexpr keyword enhances this feature even more by ensuring that specific expressions are evaluated at build time.

Code maintainability and redundancy are increased when type inference is enabled using the auto keyword. When lambda expressions are used, as they were in C++11, short, inline functions can be created, which improves the expressiveness and conciseness of code. Const-correctness, a best practise that helps to prevent accidental changes to variables, encourages the writing of robust, error-free code. C++11 introduced move semantics, a feature that increases efficiency by efficiently moving resources between objects. The placement new operator provides the last and most powerful memory allocation control feature, which enables developers to place items at precise memory regions.

The 10 Different C++ Programming Tricks:

There are several programming tricks in C++. Some main tricks are as follows:

  • Ternary Operator for Concise Conditionals: To improve code readability, write conditional statements succinctly in a single line by using the ternary operator (? :).

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

int x = 5;

int y = (x > 0) ? 10 : 0;
  • STL Algorithms for Effective Operations: Promote code reuse and efficiency by using the Standard Template Library's (STL) algorithms to carry out common operations on data structures.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

#include <algorithm>

#include <vector>

// ...

std::vector<int> numbers = {4, 2, 8, 5, 1};

std::sort(numbers.begin(), numbers.end());
  • Smart Pointers for Improved Memory Management: Using smart pointers, such as shared_ptr and unique_ptr, to automate memory deallocation that can improve memory management by lowering the risk of memory leaks that come with using raw pointers.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

#include <memory>

// ...

std::unique_ptr<int> ptr = std::make_unique<int>(42);
  • Template Metaprogramming for Compile-Time Computation: Investigate Template Metaprogramming for build-Time Computation to generate extremely flexible and optimized code by doing computations at build time.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

template <int N>

struct Factorial {

static const int value = N * Factorial<N - 1>::value;

};

template <>

struct Factorial<0> {

static const int value = 1;

};

int result = Factorial<5>::value; // Compile-time computed factorial of 5
  • Const-Correctness for Robust Code: Follow const-correctness guidelines to protect against inadvertent variable mutation, which will increase the maintainability and robustness of your code.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

const int constantValue = 100;

// constantValue = 50; // Error: Cannot modify a const variable
  • Auto Keyword for Type Inference: Use of the auto keyword for type inference can reduce redundant variable declarations and improve the readability and conciseness of code.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

std::vector<int> numbers = {1, 2, 3, 4};

for (auto it = numbers.begin(); it != numbers.end(); ++it) {

// 'it' is automatically inferred as std::vector<int>::iterator

}
  • Lambda Expressions for Inline Functions: For more readability and expressiveness in your code, write short, inline functions using the lambda expressions that C++11 introduced.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

auto add = [](int a, int b) { return a + b; };

int result = add(3, 4);
  • Move Semantics for Efficient Resource Transfer: Reduce needless copies and increase efficiency by employing move semantics, which was added in C++11.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

#include <utility>

// ...

std::vector<int> source = {1, 2, 3};

std::vector<int> destination = std::move(source); // Efficient move
  • Constexpr Keyword for Compile-Time Evaluation: Use the constexpr keyword to make sure that some expressions are evaluated at build time. It will enable quicker computations and optimizations.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

constexpr int square(int x) {

return x * x;

}

int result = square(5); // Evaluated at compile time
  • Placement New Operator for Advanced Memory Allocation: Use the placement new operator to handle memory allocation more precisely by putting items in memory at designated locations.

Syntax:

It has the following syntax:

#include <iostream>

// ...

void* memory = operator new(sizeof(int)); // Allocate memory

int* placementNewInt = new (memory) int(42); // Placement new

std::cout << *placementNewInt << std::endl;

Example 1:

Let's take an example to illustrate how to implement these tricks in C++.

#include <iostream>

#include <algorithm>

#include <vector>

#include <memory>

// Ternary Operator for Concise Conditionals

void ternaryOperatorExample() {

int x = 5;

int y = (x > 0) ? 10 : 0;

std::cout << "Ternary Operator Result: " << y << std::endl;

}

// STL Algorithms for Efficient Operations

void stlAlgorithmsExample() {

std::vector<int> numbers = {4, 2, 8, 5, 1};

std::sort(numbers.begin(), numbers.end());

std::cout << "Sorted Numbers: ";

for (int num : numbers) {

std::cout << num << " ";

}

std::cout << std::endl;

}

// Smart Pointers for Improved Memory Management

void smartPointersExample() {

std::unique_ptr<int> ptr = std::make_unique<int>(42);

std::cout << "Smart Pointer Value: " << *ptr << std::endl;

}

// Template Metaprogramming for Compile-Time Computation

template <int N>

struct Factorial {

static const int value = N * Factorial<N - 1>::value;

};

template <>

struct Factorial<0> {

static const int value = 1;

};

void templateMetaprogrammingExample() {

int result = Factorial<5>::value;

std::cout << "Factorial of 5: " << result << std::endl;

}

// Const-Correctness for Robust Code

void constCorrectnessExample() {

const int constantValue = 100;

// constantValue = 50; // Uncommenting this line will result in a compilation error

}

// Auto Keyword for Type Inference

void autoKeywordExample() {

std::vector<int> numbers = {1, 2, 3, 4};

for (auto it = numbers.begin(); it != numbers.end(); ++it) {

// 'it' is automatically inferred as std::vector<int>::iterator

std::cout << *it << " ";

}

std::cout << std::endl;

}

// Lambda Expressions for Inline Functions

void lambdaExpressionsExample() {

auto add = [](int a, int b) { return a + b; };

int result = add(3, 4);

std::cout << "Lambda Expression Result: " << result << std::endl;

}

// Move Semantics for Efficient Resource Transfer

void moveSemanticsExample() {

std::vector<int> source = {1, 2, 3};

std::vector<int> destination = std::move(source);

std::cout << "Moved Vector Size: " << destination.size() << std::endl;

}

// Constexpr Keyword for Compile-Time Evaluation

constexpr int square(int x) {

return x * x;

}

void constexprKeywordExample() {

int result = square(5);

std::cout << "Square of 5 (constexpr): " << result << std::endl;

}

// Placement New Operator for Advanced Memory Allocation

void placementNewOperatorExample() {

void* memory = operator new(sizeof(int));

int* placementNewInt = new (memory) int(42);

std::cout << "Placement New Operator Result: " << *placementNewInt << std::endl;

}

int main() {

ternaryOperatorExample();

stlAlgorithmsExample();

smartPointersExample();

templateMetaprogrammingExample();

constCorrectnessExample();

autoKeywordExample();

lambdaExpressionsExample();

moveSemanticsExample();

constexprKeywordExample();

placementNewOperatorExample();

return 0;

}

Output:

Ternary Operator Result: 10

Sorted Numbers: 1 2 4 5 8

Smart Pointer Value: 42

Factorial of 5: 1201 2 3 4

Lambda Expression Result: 7

Moved Vector Size: 3

Square of 5 (constexpr): 25

Placement New Operator Result: 42

Example 2:

Let's take another example to illustrate how to implement these tricks in C++.

#include <iostream>

#include <algorithm>

#include <vector>

#include <memory>

// Ternary Operator for Concise Conditionals

void ternaryOperatorExample() {

int x = -2;

int y = (x > 0) ? 10 : 0;

std::cout << "Ternary Operator Result: " << y << std::endl;

}

// STL Algorithms for Efficient Operations

void stlAlgorithmsExample() {

std::vector<int> numbers = {10, 5, 8, 2, 7};

std::sort(numbers.begin(), numbers.end(), std::greater<int>());

std::cout << "Sorted Numbers (Descending): ";

for (int num : numbers) {

std::cout << num << " ";

}

std::cout << std::endl;

}

// Smart Pointers for Improved Memory Management

void smartPointersExample() {

std::unique_ptr<double> ptr = std::make_unique<double>(3.14);

std::cout << "Smart Pointer Value: " << *ptr << std::endl;

}

// Template Metaprogramming for Compile-Time Computation

template <int N>

struct PowerOfTwo {

static const int value = 1 << N;

};

void templateMetaprogrammingExample() {

int result = PowerOfTwo<3>::value;

std::cout << "2^3 (Power of Two): " << result << std::endl;

}

// Const-Correctness for Robust Code

void constCorrectnessExample() {

const double pi = 3.14159;

// pi = 2.0; // Uncommenting this line will result in a compilation error

}

// Auto Keyword for Type Inference

void autoKeywordExample() {

std::vector<std::string> words = {"apple", "banana", "orange", "grape"};

for (auto it = words.begin(); it != words.end(); ++it) {

// 'it' is automatically inferred as std::vector<std::string>::iterator

std::cout << *it << " ";

}

std::cout << std::endl;

}

// Lambda Expressions for Inline Functions

void lambdaExpressionsExample() {

auto multiply = [](int a, int b) { return a * b; };

int result = multiply(4, 7);

std::cout << "Lambda Expression Result: " << result << std::endl;

}

// Move Semantics for Efficient Resource Transfer

void moveSemanticsExample() {

std::vector<std::string> source = {"one", "two", "three"};

std::vector<std::string> destination = std::move(source);

std::cout << "Moved Vector Size: " << destination.size() << std::endl;

}

// Constexpr Keyword for Compile-Time Evaluation

constexpr int cube(int x) {

return x * x * x;

}

void constexprKeywordExample() {

int result = cube(4);

std::cout << "Cube of 4 (constexpr): " << result << std::endl;

}

// Placement New Operator for Advanced Memory Allocation

void placementNewOperatorExample() {

void* memory = operator new(sizeof(char));

char* placementNewChar = new (memory) char('A');

std::cout << "Placement New Operator Result: " << *placementNewChar << std::endl;

}

int main() {

ternaryOperatorExample();

stlAlgorithmsExample();

smartPointersExample();

templateMetaprogrammingExample();

constCorrectnessExample();

autoKeywordExample();

lambdaExpressionsExample();

moveSemanticsExample();

constexprKeywordExample();

placementNewOperatorExample();

return 0;

}

Output:

Ternary Operator Result: 0

Sorted Numbers (Descending): 10 8 7 5 2

Smart Pointer Value: 3.14

2^3 (Power of Two): 8

apple banana orange grape

Lambda Expression Result: 28

Moved Vector Size: 3

Cube of 4 (constexpr): 64

Placement New Operator Result: A