C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file


C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++ std::fixed, std::scientific, std::hexfloat, std::defaultfloat in C++ StringStream in C++ for Decimal to Hexadecimal and back The OFFSETOF() macro in C++ Difference between std::next and std::advance in C++ Hiding of all overloaded methods with same name in base class in C++ C++ program to concatenate two strings using operator overloading Difference between array::fill() and array::swap() in C++ Difference between Friend Function and Virtual Function in C++ Semaphores in C++ Seekg in C++ UDP server- client implementattion in C++ What is long long in C++ CSV file management using C++ Toggle bits of a number except first and last bits in C++ Trailing Return Type C++ 11 Binary search implementation in C++ Different Versions of C++ What is Cascading in C++ Background Colour in C++ BOOL DATATYPE IN C++ BIT VECTORS IN C++

C++ Design

C++ design refers to the process of creating and planning the architecture, structure, and behavior of a C++ program. It involves making decisions about the design patterns, data structures, algorithms, and other components that will be used to build a C++ application. Good design is essential for creating programs that are maintainable, extensible, and efficient.

There are several different types of C++ designs, including:

Object-Oriented Design (OOD)

Object-oriented design (OOD) is a programming approach that emphasizes the use of objects to represent real-world entities and organize code. This approach is based on the principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. C++ is a powerful object-oriented programming language that provides a wide range of tools and features for building complex software systems.

Here's an example of a simple C++ program that uses object-oriented design:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// Define a class to represent a rectangle
class Rectangle {
    int length;
    int width;
    Rectangle(int l, int w) {
      length = l;
      width = w;
    int calculateArea() {
      return length * width;

// Define the main function
int main() {
  int length, width, area;
  cout << "Enter the length of the rectangle: ";
  cin >> length; cout << "Enter the width of the rectangle: ";
  cin >> width;

  // Create a Rectangle object and call the calculateArea method
  Rectangle r(length, width);
  area = r.calculateArea();

  cout << "The area of the rectangle is: " << area << endl;
  return 0;

In this example, we define a class called Rectangle that represents a rectangle. The class has two private member variables, length and width, and two public member functions, a constructor that initializes the length and width, and a method calculateArea that returns the area of the rectangle. The main function prompts the user for the dimensions of the rectangle, creates a Rectangle object using the input, and then calls the calculateArea method to calculate the area of the rectangle.

The object-oriented design provides a number of benefits over procedural design, including better code organization, reusability, and extensibility. With OOD, code is organized into classes and objects that represent real-world entities, making it easier to understand and maintain. Inheritance and polymorphism allow classes to be extended and customized in flexible ways, and encapsulation provides a powerful tool for managing complexity and hiding implementation details.

C++ provides a wide range of advanced features for object-oriented design, including templates, multiple inheritances, and operator overloading. By using these features effectively, developers can create powerful and efficient software systems that are easy to understand and maintain.

Generic Design

Generic Design in C++ refers to the process of creating flexible and reusable code that can work with multiple data types. This is achieved through the use of templates, which allow developers to create generic algorithms and data structures that can work with different data types.

Templates in C++ allow developers to write code that is generic over data types, meaning that the same code can be used with different data types without the need to write separate code for each data type. This is a powerful feature that can greatly reduce code duplication and make code more maintainable.

Here's an example of generic design in C++:

template<typename T>
T max(T a, T b) {
    return (a > b) ? a : b;

int main() {
    int x = 5, y = 10;
    double a = 3.14, b = 2.71;

    int max_int = max(x, y);
    double max_double = max(a, b);

    std::cout << "Max of " << x << " and " << y << " is " << max_int << std::endl;
    std::cout << "Max of " << a << " and " << b << " is " << max_double << std::endl;

    return 0;

In this example, the max function is a generic function that can be used with any data type that supports the greater-than operator. The typename T declaration at the beginning of the function specifies that the function is a template that takes a type parameter T. Inside the function, the T type parameter is used to define the type of the input parameters and the return value.

In the main function, the max function is called twice, once with integer inputs and once with double inputs. The function returns the maximum of the two input values, regardless of their type.

By using templates in this way, developers can create generic code that can work with different data types, reducing code duplication and improving the maintainability of the code.

Component-Based Design

 Component-Based Design in C++ refers to the process of creating software systems by combining individual components or modules that can be reused across multiple projects. Each component is a self-contained module that performs a specific task or provides specific functionality.

Component-Based Design in C++ can help reduce development time and cost by allowing developers to reuse existing components, rather than building everything from scratch. This approach also makes the code more modular, easier to maintain, and more flexible.

Here's an example of Component-Based Design in C++:

Let's say we want to build a simple game that involves moving a character around on the screen. We can use Component-Based Design to create several individual components, each responsible for specific functionality, such as:

  • Input Component: This component handles user input, such as keyboard and mouse input, and sends it to other components.
  • Physics Component: This component handles the physics of the game, such as collision detection and gravity.
  • Graphics Component: This component handles the rendering of the game, such as drawing the character and the environment on the screen.
  • Sound Component: This component handles the audio effects and music of the game.

Each component is designed to work independently and can be reused across multiple projects. For example, the Input Component can be used in any game that requires user input, and the Graphics Component can be used in any game that requires graphics rendering.

To create the game, we can combine these individual components to create the final system. The Input Component sends the user input to the Physics Component, which calculates the movement of the character. The Graphics Component then renders the character and the environment on the screen, and the Sound Component plays the audio effects and music.

By using Component-Based Design, we can create a flexible, modular, and reusable system that can be easily maintained and extended over time.

Functional Design

 This design approach emphasizes the use of functions and immutable data structures to create programs. The choice of data structures and algorithms can have a big impact on the performance of a program. It is important to choose the appropriate data structures and algorithms for the specific problem being solved. Functional programming languages like Haskell and Lisp heavily utilize this type of design.

Procedural Design

 This type of design is focused on organizing code around procedures or functions that perform specific tasks. It is often used for small programs or scripts.

This approach involves breaking down a program into smaller procedures that are focused on performing specific actions. These procedures can be used to build up larger programs by combining them in various ways.

In C++, procedural design can be used to create a program that is organized around functions. Here is an example of a simple C++ program that uses procedural design:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// Define a function that calculates the area of a rectangle
int calculateArea(int length, int width) {
  return length * width;

// Define the main function
int main() {
  int length, width, area;
  cout << "Enter the length of the rectangle: ";
  cin >> length;
  cout << "Enter the width of the rectangle: ";
  cin >> width;

  // Call the calculateArea function
  area = calculateArea(length, width);

  cout << "The area of the rectangle is: " << area << endl;
  return 0;

In this example, the program is organized around a single function calculateArea which calculates the area of a rectangle based on its length and width. The main function prompts the user for the dimensions of the rectangle and then calls the calculateArea function to calculate the area.

Procedural design can be used to create more complex programs by breaking them down into smaller functions that perform specific tasks. This can make the code easier to understand and maintain, as each function is focused on a specific action and can be reused in other parts of the program.

One potential disadvantage of the procedural design is that it can be more difficult to manage state and data dependencies between functions, as each function operates independently. Object-oriented design, which emphasizes the use of objects to represent data and encapsulate behavior, can provide a more structured approach to managing these dependencies.

Overall, the type of C++ design used will depend on the specific requirements and constraints of a project. A good design is essential for creating software that is maintainable, scalable, and efficient.