C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

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Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference 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What is endl in C++?

Endl is a manipulator in C++ that is used to insert a newline character (\n) into the output stream and flush the buffer. It is typically used to end a line of output and ensure that the output is immediately displayed on the console or written to a file.

In C++, the output stream is buffered, which means that the data sent to the output stream is not immediately displayed on the console or written to a file, but is instead stored in a buffer until it is full or until the buffer is manually flushed. By using endl, you can explicitly flush the buffer and ensure that any data in the buffer is immediately displayed or written.

For example, the following code uses endl to print "Hello, World!" on a new line:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main() {
cout<< "Hello, World!" <<endl;
return 0;
}

Output:

Hello, World!

In addition to inserting a newline character and flushing the output stream buffer, endl also has the side effect of slowing down the output process. This is because flushing the buffer can be a time-consuming operation, particularly if the output is being directed to a file or other slow output device.

While endl is commonly used to end a line of output, it is not always necessary to use it. If you simply want to output a newline character without flushing the buffer, you can use the escape sequence '\n' instead.

For example, the following code outputs "Hello" and "World" on separate lines using the '\n' character:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main() {
cout<< "Hello\n";
cout<< "World\n";
return 0;
}

Output:

Hello
World

Note that because '\n' does not flush the output buffer, the two lines of output are immediately displayed on the console. In contrast, if we had used endl instead of '\n', the output would have been slower as the buffer would have been flushed after each line of output.

Why do we use endl in C++?

In C++, the endl manipulator is often used to end a line of output and flush the output stream buffer. Here are a few reasons why endl is commonly used in C++:

  • Ensuring output is immediately displayed: As mentioned earlier, the output stream is buffered in C++, which means that the data sent to the output stream is not immediately displayed on the console or written to a file, but is instead stored in a buffer until it is full or until the buffer is manually flushed. By using endl, you can explicitly flush the buffer and ensure that any data in the buffer is immediately displayed or written.
  • Ensuring correctness when reading from the input stream: In some cases, when reading input from the standard input stream using cin, it is necessary to flush the output buffer before reading from the input stream. This is because any data in the output buffer may still be waiting to be displayed on the console, which can interfere with input operations. By using endl after writing output, you can ensure that the output buffer is flushed before attempting to read input.
  • Formatting output: endl is often used to format output by ending a line of text or data. This can be useful for displaying data in a readable format or separating different parts of output.
  • Debugging: When debugging code, it can be useful to insert endl statements in order to print the values of variables or other information to the console, which can help with identifying bugs in the code.

Advantages of endl in C++

Some advantages of endl are as follows:

  1. Platform-independent behaviour: Endl provides platform-independent behaviour for inserting a newline character and flushing the output stream buffer. This means that the same code can be used on different platforms without requiring modifications.
  2. Compatibility with other output manipulators: Endl can be used in combination with other output manipulators, such as setw, setprecision, and setfill, to format output in a precise and customizable way.
  3. Compatibility with different types of output streams: Endl can be used with different types of output streams, such as standard output streams, file output streams, and string streams, allowing for greater flexibility in the output process.
  4. Readability: By using endl to end lines of output, code can be made more readable and easier to understand, particularly for complex output operations.
  5. Debugging: As mentioned earlier, endl can be useful for debugging code by allowing the programmer to print the values of variables or other information to the console.