C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++

Approach in C++

Object oriented programming languages like Java or C++ use a bottom-up approach that identifies each object first.  In the bottom-up approach, we create a small problem first, and try to solve the smaller problem. After solving the smaller program, we will integrate it into a whole subprogram and then to a complete solution to the main program. This approach is mainly used by an object-oriented programming language like C++, Python etc.

In the bottom approach, we specify a small problem and firstly solve it. We can say that all the individual parts of the system are specified in full detail like every individual part we have solved, same as we do in object-oriented programming, we create objects and, finally, we combine the problem, so what we need to do in the bottom-up approach we start to combine all parts of the program. Suppose, there are four parts we combined, it will make another bigger problem and this will be once again combined to solve another larger problem so this is our concept of bottom-up approach same as object-oriented programming we see (e.g.) c++ or java.

So, we can say, in bottom-up approach, we will create smaller programs first with full descriptions, then the smaller programs integrated and linked to other components then these components are linked to form a complete main program. In this program, we will solve the smaller solution and then bring the solution together to create a great program. This approach is used when we have a lot of details about smaller programs, and by using the result, we have to create the main program.

Some specifications of a bottom-up approach

1. Start with small modules and add them together

2. After every step, communication is mandatory

3. Generally used by object-oriented programming

4. Works on the concept of data hiding and encapsulation

5. After every step, checking is important

This approach works when we have enough idea about each section module of a program but have yet to learn of the overall program. This approach mainly focuses on how Data is secure. To put it simply, we use bottom-up, which means we can make programs in small pieces first and then as a block to build a large program.

Approaches in Programming

For developing any software and mobile app, we have mainly three different approaches, which are: The top-down approach, bottom- up approach, and Hybrid.

Approach in C++

1. Top-down approach:

In this approach, we develop an overview of the program before developing processes. After that, we create every module with basic prosperity and a basic structure for our project. After creating the basic structure, we work with every individual after that. We work on every individual module. This approach is used when we have a good overall idea of what we need but need more information about each section of our program. In this approach, the problem is divided into small modules. Each problem is analyzed, and the solution of all subproblems is combined to produce the overall result of the program. this process of implementing a structured design is called structure programming

Some characteristics of top-down approaches are given below:

  • emphasis is on doing things.
  • Large programs are divided into smaller programs known as function.
  • Most of the functions share global data.
  • Data move openly around the system from function to function.
  • no data security.
  • transformation of data from one to another.
  • In top-down approach addition of new data and function is very difficult.
  • this is mainly function-oriented.
  • not extensible.
  • it follows procedure-oriented programming.
  • simple user-defined data types are created.
  •  programming languages like c, pascal follow this approach.

Advantage of the Top-down approach

  • easy to discover an error in a program that is well-analyzed and well designed
  • easy to modify a program.

Major drawback of the top-down approach

  • we have to solve each module individually even the module is common or not.
  • It is the approach used when we have a good idea of the final result, but we have very few details about each section
  • this approach is focused on how the task is done.

2. bottom-up approach: It starts with creating small modules in great details all they module in detail,

These modules are then linked to create components, which are then linked to form the complete program. In this approach, we solve the smaller problem first and then bring this solution to create a great program, this is used when we have a lot of details about certain components of the program and we want to build the rest of the program around those components.

Some characteristics of top-down approaches are given below:

  • Emphasizes on data rather than procedure
  • programming is divided into what is known as objects
  • function that operates on the data are tied together in the Data structure
  • Data is hidden and cannot be processed by an external function
  • data security exists.
  • with the help of function, objects may communicate with each other
  •  new data and functions can be easily added when necessary
  • this is mainly data-oriented.
  • security of Data is to exist
  •  extensible
  • it follows object-oriented programming, which can create complex user-defined objects

programming languages like c++ java follow this approach.

 An object-oriented programming language is an approach that divides a program by creating an object(data + object) that can be used as a template for creating copies of such objects on demands. Object-oriented programming mainly focuses on the security of data.

In this approach, we move bottom to the top of our program. This approach is used when we have enough idea about each section/module of the program but have yet to learn of the overall program.

2. Hybrid approach:

It starts with creating a detailed core of the program with basic modules put together, then we add modules to this core and add functionality to the program. This approach ensures to get a broader vision of the program, like in a top-down approach. And also, the precision in each module is provided by the bottom-up approach. This approach is very balanced and is used instead of the top-down approach when we have a good overall idea and enough details of individual modules.

Why is the bottom approach used in C++?

Yes, C++ follows the bottom approach. The bottom approach divides a complex problem into smaller, easier parts. If these parts are still complex, we further divide these into more manageable, easier tasks and keep repeating this process until we get the easiest parts. By doing this, we get the most basic parts of that complex problem, here easiest tasks are solved or processed first then the result of these easiest parts, we process higher-level tasks and repeat this process with the next higher-level tasks. We get the solution of the main complex,

If we want to store an object's data, we first get that object's most basic details. Then taking those basic details, we keep on processing its further higher-level details according to requirements. We can also do the same tasks in procedural-oriented language, but the object-oriented language could be better for data security.

In an object-oriented language, if we want to store data of students, then we first decide to take the most basic details like no, name, class, fees absents, etc. we get these entries then we can process this Data for getting basic details,, of a student, fees related processing, attendance related processes we can provide the final result of an object.

For example: if we are creating a student management system

in bottom up: We create students, courses, subjects first, and then top-level departments, classes, reports, etc.

In top-down: We create top-level objects like a report, results, etc. then later, students, sources

Now, taking the most basic details of the student object, we reach to complex result-creating process. Object-oriented language provides data security features.