C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file


C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ Lambda Expressions in C++ How to create a button in C++

Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures

The below table clearly describes the differences between C and C++ programming languages Structures concepts where the core principle concepts like static members, data handling, pointers, access modifiers, the importance of the struct keyword and its necessity to declare the type variables, why C++ supports the access modifiers while C is not supporting it. Some code to see the working of the member functions inside the structure, declaring the Structures accessing them etc.

Table depicting the differences between C and C++ Structures.

C Structures  C++ Structures  
In C Structures, we cannot have static members in it.  In C++ Structures, we can have static members in it.  
In C structures Data handling concept is not possible.  In C++ structures Data handling concept is not possible.  
In C Structures, only the pointers to struct are allowed in it.  In C++ Structures, it can have both the pointers and the references attached to the struct.  
In C Structures, they do not have access modifiers. Before implementing any structure functionality in C structures, it is necessary to use the 'struct' keyword to declare the structure type of variables.  In C++ Structures, it supports the access modifiers. In C++ structures, before we implement any Structure functionality, it is not necessary to use the 'struct' keyword to declare the structure type of variables.  
In C structures, direct Initialization of the data members is not possible.  In C++ structures there is direct Initialization of the data members is possible.  
In C structures, they cannot have a constructor inside a structure  In C++, systems can have a constructor inside a structure  
In C structures, only the data members are allowed; it cannot have the member functions.  In C++ Structures, it can hold both the member functions and the data members.  
In C structures, the data hiding feature is not available.  In C++ structures, the data hiding feature is available.  
In C structures, the sizeof() operator will generate 0 for an open system.In C++ structures the sizeof() operator will generate 1 for empty structure.  

C code to Demonstrate C Structures

Code -1

struct a{

    int data_1;
    int data_2;
int main()
    struct a s_data = {1227, 1324,12121,2211,788776,2221,12};
    printf("%d %d", s_data.data_1,s_data.data_2, s_data.data_3, s_data.data_4, s_data.data_5, s_data.data_6, s_data.data_7);
    return 0;


1227 1324 12121 2211 788776 2221 12


//C code to create a structure 
struct myStruct {
  int mynum;
  char myletter;

int main() {

  struct myStruct s1pro;

  s1pro.mynum = 3;
  s1pro.myletter = 'C';

  printf("number: %d\n", s1pro.mynum);
  printf("letter: %c\n", s1pro.myletter);

  return 0;


number: 3
letter: C


#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
struct books {
   char title[50];
   char author[50];
int main( ) {

   struct books book1;        
   struct books book2;        
   strcpy( book1.title, "Coding in Java");
   strcpy( book1.author, "Ali zuha"); 
   strcpy( book2.title, "Bill");
   strcpy( book2.author, " zara Ali");
   printf( "book 1 title : %s\n", book1.title);
   printf( "book 1 author : %s\n", book1.author);
   printf( "book 2 title : %s\n", book2.title);
   printf( "book 2 author : %s\n", book2.author);
   return 0;


book 1 title : Coding in Java
book 1 author : Ali zuha
book 2 title : Bill
book 2 author :  zara Ali

C++ Code to Demonstrate C++ Structures


#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 struct Point {
    int x, y;
int main(){
    struct Point p1 = { 110, 221 };
    //code for accessing members of the point p1
    p1.x = 40;
    cout << "x = " << p1.x << ", y = " << p1.y;
    return 0;


x = 40, y = 221

C++ Code-2

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
struct Point {
    int x, y, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h;
int main()
    //code to create an array of structures
    struct Point arr[20];
    //code to access array members
    arr[0].x = 10;
    arr[0].y = 20;
    arr[0].a = 30;
    arr[0].b = 40;
    arr[0].c = 50;
    arr[0].d = 60;
    arr[0].e = 70;
    arr[0].f = 80;
    arr[0].g = 90;
    arr[0].h = 100;
    cout << arr[0].x <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].y <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].a <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].b <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].c <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].d <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].e <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].f <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].g <<endl;
    cout << arr[0].h <<endl;
    return 0;