C++ Tutorial index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords C++ OOPS Concepts C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array to function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ for loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ functions

function in C++ C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion function C++ inline function C++ Friend function C++ Friend functions function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ Math functions swap() function in C++ rand() and srand() in C / C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() functions in C++ sort() function in C++ C++ vardiac() function System() function in C++ Fread function in C++ Programming Fscanf function in The C++ Gmtime function in C/C++ abs() function in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ isprint() function in c++ is_trivial function in C++ div() function in C++ Set insert function in C++ rint(), rintf(), rintl() in C++ String append() function in C++ String push_back() in C++ String replace() in C++ Transform function in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Std partition_point in C++ unique() in C++ ctime() function in C++ Gets() and Puts() in C++ Hypot(), hypotf() and hypotl() in C++ Log function in C++ Nearbyint() function in C++ setf() function in C++ Fill Function in C++ Map Find Function in C++ Malloc and Calloc in C++ Operator Function in C++ cin.get() in C++ seekp() Function in C++ eof() Function in C++ Emplace Back in C++ C++ macro function C_str in C++ Clock() in C/C++ round() function in C++ scalbn() function in C++ Stable Sort function in C++ Rotate in C++ Std:: Sort_heap in C++ Std::includes() in C++ STL std::memset() function in C++ Wcscmp() function in C++ Static Member function in C++ atof() function in C++ C++ Sin() function with Example cin.ignore() function in C++ Member function in C++ Pop_front Vector in C++ Vector resize() in C++ Malloc() and new in C++ std::distance in C++ C++ Date and Time fork() in C++ std::min in C++ isprint() in C++ rdbuf() in C++ fixed() Function in C++ setw() in C++ seekg() Function in C++ isdigit() Function in C++

C++ Function Miscellaneous

Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ function overloading in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Returning Multiple Values from a function using Tuple and Pair in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Pure Virtual function in C++ With Example Program Returning a function Pointer from a function in C/C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ functions in C++ With Types and Examples C++ Macro function Example Using Default Arguments with Virtual functions Virtual functions and Runtime Polymorphism Fesetround() and Fegetround() in C++ and their application Object as function Argument in C++ Private Member function in C++ Function Overriding in C++ C++ Program for Addition of Two Numbers Using functions function Object in C++ Elements of User Defined function in C++ Inline Functions in C++ Virtual Function in C++

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ inheritance Single level inheritance Multilevel inheritance Multiple inheritance Hierarchical inheritance Hybrid inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

C++ Programs

Structure of C++ Program Hello World Program in C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Palindrome Number Program in C++ LCM Program in C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ Factorial Program in C++ C++ Prime number program Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ Array program in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ C++ Program for FCFS Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ inheritance Program in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Example Program in C++ for input and Output Calculator Program using Switch in C++ Program for COPY Constructor in C++ Bank Program in C++ Anagram Program in C++

C++ Operators

Unary Operators in C++ Delete Operator in C++ C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Scope Resolution Operator in C++ C++ Ternary Operator New Operator in C++ Overloading array index operator in C++ Operator overloading in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Benefits of Operator Overloading in C++ Assignment Operator Overloading in C++ New and Delete Operator in C++ Insertion Operator in C++ Increment Operator in C++ Bitwise Operator in C++

C++ Examples

C++ Programming Examples While Loop Examples in C++ for Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ SDL library in C++ with Examples C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example TCP Client Server Example in C++ Example of Parameterized Constructor in C++ Example of User Defined Data Type in C++

C++ Differences

C Vs C++ free() vs delete() in C++ Constructor Vs Destructor Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ C++ vs C# Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual function Vs Pure Virtual function Structure Vs Class in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Static keyword in C++ vs Java inheritance in C++ vs Java C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Map vs unordered_map in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Differences between Local and Global Variable Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Difference Between Overloading and Overriding in C++ std::set_symmetric_difference in C++ Difference between Private and Protected in C++ Difference Between Encapsulation and Abstraction in C++ Difference between Template and Macro in C++ Difference between Abstraction and Interface in C++ Differences Between C++ and Javascript

How To

How to concatenate two strings in C++ How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using for Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ How to create a button in C++ How the value is passed in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ How to Remove an Element From an Array in C++ How to Take Space Separated input in C++ How to Copy in Turbo C++ How to Use Pow in C++ How to Use Set in C++ How to Create Singleton Class in C++ How to Allocate Memory Dynamically in C++ How to Close Turbo C++ in Windows 10 How to Use Modulus in C++

C++ Questions

What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ What is Static Member function in C++ What is This Pointer in C++ What is Upcasting in C++ What Kind of Exceptions Are Available in C++ What is Memory Allocation for Objects in C++ What is a Linked List in C++ is assignment operator inherited in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ What is an Object in C++ What is Copy Constructor in C++ What is a Static Member Function in C++

C++ Interview Questions

Advanced C++ interview Questions Oops Interview Questions in C++


External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ C++ References C++ Mutable keyword initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Storage Classes in C goto statement in C and C++ C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque C++ array of Pointers Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Object Class C++ Queue initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components C++ Maximum index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based for Loop Converting string into integer in C++ Type conversion in C++ Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ C++ forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast input and Output in C++ Copy elision in C++ Array of sets in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Stringstream in C++ and its applications C++ Scope of Variables Star pattern in C++ using for Loops Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using for Loop infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ Structured Binding in C++ Functors in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ Naming Convention in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Features and Use of Pointers in C/C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Use of inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ for Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Permutation Overloading Stream insertion in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern Convert String to Uppercase in C++ initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Stack size in C++ Unordered_map in C++ Binary String to int C++ Boost C++ Exception handling in constructor and destructor in C++ Explain class template in C++ Kadane Algorithm in C++ Map of Pairs in STL Pair in C++ Access Specifiers in C++ Add Two Numbers in C++ Using Class C++ Socket Programming Windows Cube root in C++ C++ Protected inheritance C++ Return Object Static Data Members in C++ Association in C++ Boost libraries in C++ Automatic Storage Class in C++ C++ Move Constructor Cast in C++ C++ 11 Lambda C++ Multithreading Bottom-up Approach in C++ C++ Static Class C++ Static Member C++ Static Variable C++ Template Class Implementation Kruskals Algorithm in C++ Kth Permutation Sequence in C++ Kth Smallest Element Using Priority Queue in C++ Min Heap in C++ Multilevel inheritance in C++ Playfair Cipher Algorithm in C++ Exception Handling in Java and C++ Sorting in C++ Time and Space Complexity for Loops in C++ Convert Vector To String in C++ Cascading in C++ Control Structure in C++ Passing Object as argument in C++ Vector Pair in C++ String Data Types in C++ Topological Sort in C++ C++ Move Semantics C++ Static Library Linking Call by Value and Call by Reference in C++ Data Structures algorithms and application in C++ Dereferencing a Pointer in C++ Linked List in C++ All Swing Components in C++ anonymous Object in C++ Cerr in C++ Control Flow Statement in C++ cstdlib in C++ Exception Objects in C++ Base Class and Derived Class in C++ Creating A Menu in C++ Escape Sequence in C++ Explicit in C++ int range in C++ Maximum Value in Vector in C++ NPTEL Programming in C++ Shared Pointer in C++ Static Member Function in C++ With Example The Diamond Pattern in C++ Const ptr C++ Const_Cast C++ Area Of Triangle in C++ Array input in C++ Cin String in C++ Coroutine in C++ Gui Design in C++ integer in C++ Advantages and Disadvantages of inheritance in C++ C++ IDE Linux C++ Mini Project With Source Code And Output C++ Variables Types Containers in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Explain Access Specifiers in C++ Iomanip in C++ Noexcept in C++ C++ Reference Initializer in C++ Constant Arguments in C++ Vector in C++ Stl Singleton Pattern in C++ Error Handling in C++ C++ Thread Id to Int C Str in C++ C++ Shared Ptr Scope Resolution Operator in C++ C++ Random Number Between 1 and 10 File Opening Mode in C++ New and Delete in C++ Big Integers in C++ Stack Unwinding in C++ C++ Syntax Link Map cbegin() and cend() function in C++ STL Hamming Code Implementation in C++ Files and Streams in C++ Private Destructor in C++ Semaphore in C++ Map Emplace_hint() function in C++ STL Complex Number Program in C++ Meta Classes in C++ C++ Delegates Custom Sort in C++ RAII in C++ Babylonian Square Root Algorithm in C++ File Input and output operation in C++ Sum of Digits of a Number in C++ C++ Type Traits Binary Search Tree Program in C++ Tree in C++ Built in Types in C++ Catch all Exceptions in C++ C++ Template Class Declaration and Definition C++ Generic Programming Introduction Fundamental Data Types in C++ API in C++ Menu Driven Program in C++ Exception Specification in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ Dynamic Initialization Of Objects in C++ Returning Object from a Function in C++ Class and Structure in C++ Edmonds Karp Algorithm in C++ Flush in C++ Find Substring in C++ Input and Output Operators in C++ Final in C++ Lvalue and Rvalue in C++ C++ Singleton File Stream in C++ Has a Relationship in C++ Character Set in C++ Menu Driven Program in C++ Final Keyword in C++ Associative Containers in C++ Decltype in C++ Insert Function in C++ Metaclass in C++ Move Constructor in C++ Move Semantics in C++

C++ Inheritance

What do you mean by Inheritance ?

The ability to define new classes based on existing classes in order to reuse and organise code is referred to as inheritance. Single inheritance is simple to implement in C by actually inserting the inherited class attribute structure as the first member of the derived class attribute structure.

For example,

class Animal {
    // eat() function
    // sleep() function

class Dog : public Animal {
    // bark() function

The Dog class is derived from the Animal class in this case. Members of Animal are available to Dog since it is derived from Animal.

C++ Inheritance

Take note of how the term public is used when inheriting Dog from Animal.

class Dog : public Animal {...};

Instead of public, we might use the phrases private and protected. Later in this lesson, we will learn about the distinctions between utilising private, public, and protected.

Is-a connection

Inheritance is defined as an is-a connection. We utilise inheritance only when there is an is-a connection between the two classes.

Following are some examples:

  • A automobile is a type of vehicle.
  • Orange is a kind of fruit.
  • A surgeon is a type of doctor.
  • A dog is a kind of animal.


// C++ program to demonstrate inheritance

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// base class
class Animal {

    void eat() {
        cout << "I can eat!" << endl;

    void sleep() {
        cout << "I can sleep!" << endl;

// derived class
class Dog : public Animal {
    void bark() {
        cout << "I can bark! Woof woof!!" << endl;

int main() {
    // Create object of the Dog class
    Dog dog1;

    // Calling members of the base class

    // Calling member of the derived class

    return 0;


I can eat!
I can sleep!
I can bark! Woof woof!!

Dog1 (the object of the derived class Dog) has access to members of the base class Animal in this case. It's because Dog is a descendant of Animal.

// Calling members of the Animal class

What Is the Difference Between Child and Parent Classes?

To fully grasp the notion of inheritance, you must first learn about two concepts that serve as the foundation for the whole concept: child class and parent class.

  • Child class or derived class: A class that inherits the attributes of another class is referred to as a child class or derived class. The kind of inheritance determines the amount of child classes that can be inherited from a single parent class. A child class will access the data members of the parent class based on the visibility mode set during the child class's definition.
  • The parent class or base class: It is the class from which the child class derives its attributes. Numerous child classes can be derived from a single parent class (Hierarchical Inheritance), or multiple parent classes can inherit a single base class (Multiple Inheritance). This is determined by the various forms of inheritance in C++.

Access Modifiers in C++

Access modifiers are used to perform Data Hiding, which is an important feature of Object-Oriented Programming. In a class, Access Modifiers or Access Specifiers are used to assign accessibility to class members. That is, it places some constraints on the class members, preventing them from being directly accessible by outside functions.

In C++, there are three types of access modifiers:

  • Public
  • Private
  • Protected

Let's take a closer look at each of these access modifiers:

  1. Public: Every class members stated with the public specifier are accessible to all. Other classes and methods can access the data members and member functions that have been defined as public. A class's public members can be accessed from anywhere in the programme by using the direct member access operator (.) with the class's object.
  2. Private: Class members defined as private can only be accessible by the class's member functions. They may not be accessed directly by any object or method that is not a member of the class. Only member functions or friend functions have access to a class's private data members.
  3. Protected: The Protected access modifier is similar to the Private access modifier in that it cannot be accessible outside of its class unless it is accessed through a buddy class; however, class members designated as Protected may be accessed by any subclass (derived class) of that class as well.

The table below depicts the control of the derived classes over the members of the base class in various visibility modes:

PrivateNot Inherited / Remains PrivateNot Inherited / Remains PrivateNot Inherited / Remains Private

Inheritance Member Function Override

Assume the base and derived classes both have member functions with the same name and parameters.

When we create an object of the derived class and try to access that member function, the derived class's member function is executed rather than the base class's.

The member function of the derived class takes precedence over the member function of the base class.

The Benefits of C++ Inheritance

Reusability of code: You may now reuse the members of your parent class. As a result, there is no need to redefine the member. As a result, less code is required in the class.

Types of Inheritance

C++ Inheritance

In this tutorial, you will learn about five different forms of inheritance in C++. These are their names:

Single Inheritance

Single Inheritance is the most fundamental form of inheritance in C++. A single class inherits the attributes of a base class in this inheritance. The derived class has access to all of the base class's data members based on the visibility mode (private, protected, or public) that was set during inheritance.

C++ Inheritance

Multiple Inheritance

Multiple Inheritance is the inheritance in which a class can inherit or derive the traits of multiple classes, or a derived class can have more than one source class. At the moment of inheritance, it provides access specifiers independently for each base class. The derived class can derive the shared characteristics of all of these classes, and the data members of all of the base classes are accessible by the derived or child class using the access specifiers.

C++ Inheritance

Multilevel Inheritance

Multilevel Inheritance refers to inheritance in which a class can be derived from another derived class. Assume that there are three classes: A, B, and C. Class A is the ancestor of class B. As a result, B is the derived class of A. C is the class that is descended from B. As a result, class B is the foundation class for class C but a derived class of class A. This is known as the Multilevel Inheritance situation. The data elements of each each base class are accessible by their respective derived classes based on the visibility modes given.

C++ Inheritance

Hierarchical Inheritance

Hierarchical inheritance refers to inheritance in which a single base class inherits numerous derived classes. Because each class serves as a base class for one or more child classes, this inheritance has a tree-like structure. During inheritance, the visibility mode for each derived class is set independently, and it accesses the data members accordingly.

C++ Inheritance

Hybrid Inheritances

As the name implies, hybrid inheritance is the blending of two or more types of inheritances. For example, the classes in a programme may be organised in such a way that they exhibit both single and hierarchical inheritance. This is referred to as the Hybrid Inheritance. Among all the inheritance types in C++, this is likely the most complicated. The data members of the base class will be accessible based on the visibility mode provided.

C++ Inheritance

When and Why Should You Use Inheritance?

Inheritance improves the efficiency of programming and is employed for the benefits it gives. The following are the most important applications of inheritance:

  • Reusability of code: One of the primary motivations for using inheritance is the ability to reuse code. Consider the following animals as distinct classes: tiger, lion, and panther. You may construct member methods for these classes such as predator() since they are all predators, canine() because they all have canine teeth to hunt with, and claws() because all three creatures have large and sharp claws. Because all three functions are the same for these classes, creating separate methods for each would result in data redundancy and may raise the risks of mistake. In this case, you can utilise inheritance instead. You may add these functions to a base class called carnivores, which will then be inherited by the tiger, lion, and panther classes.
  • Transitive nature: Because of its transitive nature, inheritance is also utilised. For example, consider the derived class mammal, which derives its attributes from the base class animal. Because of the transitive nature of inheritance, all of the child classes of 'mammal' will now inherit the properties of the class 'animal.' To a large extent, this aids in debugging. You may remove the defects from your base class, and all derived classes will be debugged automatically.

How Can a Private Member Be Made Inheritable?

Private members of a base class are not inherited by derived classes under inheritance. As a result, the base class's members are inaccessible to the derived class's objects. Only the public and protected members are inherited and accessible to the derived classes.

The base class's private members can be made inheritable in two ways:

Change the visibility mode from private to public.

Making the private member's access modifier public makes it inheritable by the derived classes. However, there is an issue with this technique. The data concealing attribute for that member is no longer present since it is now visible to all other operations of the application.

Change the visibility mode from Private to Protected.

This method preserves the private member's data-hiding feature. When a private member's access specifier is changed to protected, it becomes inheritable and accessible by the derived class. If these elements must be inheritable beyond the immediately derived class, they must be inherited as public. Otherwise, they should be inherited as private, which will bring the inheritance hierarchy down to the level of the directly derived class.