C++ Tutorial Index

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C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++

CPP Templates

C++ provides a powerful feature called template, which allows the definition of generic classes and generic functions. Generic programming is a technique where different algorithms work in communion by using generic parameters.

There are commonly two ways to represent templates:

  1. Function Templates
  2. Class Templates

Let’s discuss these two representations in detail.

Functional Templates

Functional templates usually define a template for a function. If we take into account a function multiply(), we can use it with any data type like int, char, float, or double type values. Consider the below characteristics of functional templates.

  1. Functional templates are extensively used in generic functions like add() or delete(). These generic functions define some sort of operations that can be easily applied to different data types.
  • The operation of the function depends on the type of data passed as a parameter. Consider quick sort algorithm, which uses general function methodology with arrays and strings.
  • The template keyword helps in the creation of a generic function. The template defines what function will serve.

Syntax:      

 template < class Ttype>
 return_type_function_name(parameter_list) 
 { 
 // body of function. 
 }  

Here,

Ttype: It is a placeholder name that is later replaced by the compiler by the actual data type.

class: It is a keyword used to generic template declaration.

Example Code:

 #include<bits/stdc++.h>
 using namespace std;
 template<class A> A multiply(A &x,A &y) 
 { 
     A result = x*y; 
     return result; 
 } 
 int main() 
 {
   int i =4; 
   int j =5; 
   float m = 3.3; 
   float n = 4.4; 
   cout<<"Mulplication of x and y is :"<<multiply(i,j);
   cout<<'\n'; 
   cout<<"Mulplication of x and y is :"<<multiply(m,n); 
   return 0; 
 } 

Output:

C++ Templates

Explanation:

In the above code, we have a placeholder value A associated with function multiplication which takes two parameters, x, and y. Another variable, 'result' is assigned with placeholder A, which stores the multiplicative value of x and y. We must set some random integer and float values to variables I, j, m, and n, respectively. The output of the code is the multiplicative value of these variables.

Similarly, functional templates can also be used with multiple parameters by separating with commas in the list.

Also, they can be easily overloaded, which is restricted to some extent depending on the situation.

Class Templates

A class template in C++ is used for specification for generating classes based on parameters. Generally, they are used to implement containers. A given set of types is passed as template arguments in a class template.

Syntax:   

 template<class T1, class T2, ......>  
 class class_name 
 { 
 // Body of the class. 
 }  

Let us discuss class templates with the help of a coding example.

 #include<bits/stdc++.h>
 using namespace std;
 template <class X>
 class Calculator_Sample
 {
 private:
                 X number1, number2;
 public:
                 Calculator_Sample(X a1, X a2)
  {
                                 number1 = a1;
                                 number2 = a2;
                 }
                 void Result()
    {
                                 cout << "Your entered : " << number1 << " and " << number2 << "." << endl;
                                 cout << "Addition Result: " << add() << endl;
                                 cout << "Subtraction Result: " << subtract() << endl;
                                 cout << "Product Result: " << multiply() << endl;
                                 cout << "Division Result: " << divide() << endl;
   }
                 X add() { return number1 + number2; }
                 X subtract() { return number1 - number2; }
                 X multiply() { return number1 * number2; }
                 X divide() { return number1 / number2; }
 };
 int main()
 {
                 Calculator_Sample<int> intCalc(3, 4);
                 Calculator_Sample<float> floatCalc(12.4, 11.2);
                 cout << "Results in integers :" << endl;
                 intCalc.Result();
                 cout << endl << "Results in float :" << endl;
                 floatCalc.Result();
                 return 0;
 }  

Output:

C++ Templates

Explanation:

In the above program, a class template Calculator_sample is declared. The class template X contains two private members of X, namely number1 and number2, and a constructor to initialize the members.

To calculate addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, it also contains public members who return the data type defined by the user. Likewise, to display the final output, we declared a function Result().

In the driver code, we created two objects of the class namely floatCalc and intCalc which are based on integer and float data types, and the values are initialized with the help of the constructor.

We used <int> and <float> to tell the compiler the data type we are using for the creation of the class. By doing this, it creates a class definition that can later be used accordingly.

The Result() function performs the operations of the class Calculator_sample and displays the values on the console as defined in the code.

Key Points:

Let’s consider some key points, which are listed below:

  1. C++ holds its back by supporting a powerful feature used for generic programming implementation popularly known as template.
  • With the help of a template, we can easily create a family of classes or functions that can handle different data types.
  • Faster and easier development is achieved by using templates because we can easily handle class and function redundancy.
  • Class template and function template can be used for multiple parameters.
  • Overloading can be easily done in a function template.
  • We can use built-in derived data type or non-type arguments with the help of templates in C++.



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