C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

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Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program 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Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++ std::fixed, std::scientific, std::hexfloat, std::defaultfloat in C++ StringStream in C++ for Decimal to Hexadecimal and back The OFFSETOF() macro in C++ Difference between std::next and std::advance in C++ Hiding of all overloaded methods with same name in base class in C++ C++ program to concatenate two strings using operator overloading Difference between array::fill() and array::swap() in C++ Difference between Friend Function and Virtual Function in C++ Semaphores in C++ Seekg in C++ UDP server- client implementattion in C++ What is long long in C++ CSV file management using C++ Toggle bits of a number except first and last bits in C++ Trailing Return Type C++ 11 Binary search implementation in C++ Different Versions of C++ What is Cascading in C++ Background Colour in C++ BOOL DATATYPE IN C++ BIT VECTORS IN C++ Literals in C++ Application of pointer in C++ Index with minimum sum of prefix and suffix sums in an array in C++ Maximum sum Bi-tonic sub-sequence in C++ std::optional in C++ C/C++ program for triangular matchstick number COUT COMMAND IN C++ LANGUAGE Adjacency matrix program in C++ language Difference between Null String and Empty String in C++ Character data type in c++ 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Private Inheritance in C++

Private inheritance is an inheritance in object-oriented programming (OOP) languages where a subclass derives from a superclass. Still, the derived class does not inherit the public and protected members of the superclass. Instead, the subclass becomes a "has-a" relationship with the superclass, meaning it contains an instance of the superclass as a member. Private inheritance is often referred to as "implementation inheritance" because it is used to extend the implementation of a class rather than its interface.

One of the main differences between private and the more common public inheritance is that the derived class does not inherit the public and protected members of the superclass. This means that the derived class cannot access these members directly and must use accessor functions to access the superclass members. Private inheritance is often used when the derived class needs to use the implementation of the superclass but does not want to expose the superclass's interface to users of the derived class.

Private inheritance can also implement the "has-a" relationship between two classes. For example, if a class "Dog" needs to use the implementation of a class "Animal," it can privately inherit from "Animal" and use the members of "Animal" to implement its behaviour. In this case, the "Dog" class would contain an instance of the "Animal" class as a member and would use the members of the "Animal" class to implement its behaviour.

Private inheritance is often used as an alternative to composition, which is another way to achieve a "has-a" relationship between two classes. While private inheritance allows the derived class to reuse the superclass’s implementation, it also introduces a level of coupling between the two classes. This means that changes to the superclass can potentially affect the derived class, which can be a drawback in some situations.

In summary, private inheritance is a type of inheritance in OOP languages where a subclass derives from a superclass but does not inherit the public and protected members of the superclass. It is often used to extend a class’s implementation or implement a "has-a" relationship between two classes. While private inheritance allows for implementation reuse, it can also introduce a level of coupling between the two classes, which can be a drawback in some situations.

Inheritance with Private Access Specifier

Inheritance is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming (OOP) languages, which allows a subclass to inherit the properties and behaviours of a superclass. In OOP languages, inheritance is implemented using access specifiers, which determine the visibility and accessibility of the members of a class. One of the access specifiers available in OOP languages is the private access specifier, which makes the members of a class private and only accessible within the class itself.

Private inheritance is a type in which the subclass derives from the superclass using the private access specifier. This means that the derived class does not inherit the public and protected members of the superclass and cannot access these members directly. Instead, the derived class becomes a "has-a" relationship with the superclass, meaning it contains an instance of the superclass as a member.

Private inheritance is often used to extend the implementation of a class rather than its interface. For example, if a class "Dog" needs to use the implementation of a class "Animal," it can privately inherit from "Animal" and use the members of "Animal" to implement its behaviour. In this case, the "Dog" class would contain an instance of the "Animal" class as a member and would use the members of the "Animal" class to implement its behaviour.

Private inheritance can also implement the "is-a" relationship between two classes, where the derived class is a more specialized version of the superclass. For example, a class "Cat" could privately inherit from "Animal," with the "Animal" class representing the more general concept of an animal and the "Cat" class representing a specific type of animal.

Private inheritance is often used as an alternative to composition, which is another way to achieve a "has-a" relationship between two classes. While private inheritance allows the derived class to reuse the superclass’s implementation, it also introduces a level of coupling between the two classes. This means that changes to the superclass can potentially affect the derived class, which can be a drawback in some situations.

In summary, private inheritance is a type in which the subclass derives from the superclass using the private access specifier. This means that the derived class does not inherit the public and protected members of the superclass and becomes a "has-a" relationship with the superclass. Private inheritance often extends a class’s implementation or implementsan "is-a" relationship between two classes. It can also introduce a level of coupling between the two classes, which can be a drawback in some situations.

#include <iostream>
// Superclass with private members
class Animal {
private:
  int age;
std::string name;
public:
  // Constructor
Animal(int age, std::string name) : age(age), name(name) {}
  // Accessor functions
  int getAge() { return age; }
std::string getName() { return name; }
};
// Subclass that privately inherits from Animal
class Cat : private Animal {
public:
  // Constructor
Cat(int age, std::string name) : Animal(age, name) {}
  // Method that uses the private members of Animal
  void meow() {
std::cout<< "Meow! My name is " <<getName() << " and I am " <<getAge() << " years old." <<std::endl;   }
};
int main() {
  Cat c(3, "Fluffy");
c.meow(); // Outputs: "Meow! My name is Fluffy and I am 3 years old."
  return 0;
}

In this example, we have a superclass "Animal" with private members "age" and "name" and a subclass "Cat" that privately inherits from "Animal." The "Cat" class has a method "meow" that uses the private members of "Animal" through the accessor functions "get" and "getName." However, the private members of "Animal" are not directly accessible in the "Cat" class, and attempting to access them will result in a compile-time error.

Advantages of Private Inheritance in C++:

  • Private inheritance is a type of inheritance in C++ that allows a subclass to derive from a superclass but does not inherit the public and protected members of the superclass. Private inheritance often extends a class’s implementation or implements a "has-a" relationship between two classes. Here are some advantages of using private inheritance in C++:
  • Reuse of implementation: Private inheritance allows the derived class to reuse the superclass’s implementation, saving time and reducing the amount of code that needs to be written.
  • Encapsulation: Private inheritance can help encapsulate the superclass's implementation details, making it more flexible and easier to maintain.
  • Clarity of code: Private inheritance can clarify to readers of the code what the "has-a" relationship between the derived class and the superclass is, as opposed to public inheritance, which can be confusing because it implies an "is-a" relationship.
  • Polymorphism: Private inheritance can be used to achieve polymorphism, where a subclass can be used in place of its superclass. For example, if the derived class overrides a virtual method of the superclass, it can be used polymorphically through a pointer or reference to the superclass.
  • Flexibility: Private inheritance allows for more flexibility in the design of a class hierarchy, as it allows for a "has-a" relationship to be implemented without the restrictions of public inheritance.
  • However, it is important to note that private inheritance can also introduce a level of coupling between the derived class and the superclass, which can be a drawback in some situations. It is important to carefully consider the trade-offs of using private inheritance and using it appropriately in the design of a class hierarchy.

Using pointers with private inheritance can lead to garbage values in C++ if the pointers are not used correctly. This is because private inheritance allows the derived class to access the superclass members, but not through the usual inheritance mechanism.

Example

class Animal {
private:
  int age;
public:
Animal(int age) : age(age) {}
  int getAge() { return age; }
};
class Cat : private Animal {
public:
Cat(int age) : Animal(age) {}
  void meow() { std::cout<< "Meow! I am " <<getAge() << " years old." <<std::endl; }
};
int main() {
  Cat c(3);
  Cat* p = &c;
  p->meow(); // Outputs: "Meow! I am 3 years old."
  // The following line will not compile, because the members of Animal are private and not accessible in Cat
  // std::cout<< p->age << std::endl;
  return 0;
}

In this example, we have a class "Animal" with a private member "age" and a class "Cat" that privately inherits from "Animal." The "Cat" class has a method "meow" that uses the private member "age" of "Animal" through the accessor function "getAge."

If we create a pointer "p" to an instance of "Cat" and use it to call the "meow" method, the code will work as expected and output "Meow! I am 3 years old." However, if we try to access the private member "age" of "Animal" through the pointer "p," the code will not compile because the private members of "Animal" are not accessible in "Cat."

The problem with this code is that the pointer "p" is pointing to an instance of "Cat," but the private inheritance of "Cat" from "Animal" means that "p" does not have the usual access to the members of "Animal." This can lead to garbage values if the pointer is used incorrectly, as it may not behave as expected.

To avoid this problem, it is important to be aware of the differences between private and public inheritance and use pointers with private inheritance carefully. In particular, it is important to remember that the derived class does not inherit the public and protected members of the superclass when using private inheritance and accessor functions to access the superclass members if necessary.