C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file


C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++

How to build a program in C++

Building a program is all about creating the program and executing it successfully. There are some steps  precisely, which must be followed to make the program.

Step 1: Get an IDE or a compiler. GCC, Visual Studio Express Edition, or Dev-C++, if your computer runs Windows, are three excellent options.

Step 2: Try out some sample programs.

Example 1

#include <iostream>
#include <string> 
using namespace std; 
int main () 
	string s;
	cout << "Your Name \n";
	cin  >> s;
	cout << "Hello, " << s << '\n' ;
	return 0;


Your Name
Hello, John

Example 2: A program to find the sum of two numbers:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std; 
int main () 
	int no1, no2, sum; 
	cout << "\nEnter the first number = " ; 
	cin  >> no1 ;
	cout << "\nEnter the second number = " ;
	cin  >> no2 ; 
	sum = no1 + no2 ;
	cout << "\nThe sum of "<< no1 <<" and "<< no2 <<" = "<< sum <<'\n' ;
	return 0 ;


Enter the first number = 5
Enter the second number = 8
The sum of 5 and 8 is = 13

Example 3: A program to find a range of given numbers.

#include <iostream>
int main()
	int v1, v2, range;
	std::cout <<"Please input two numbers:"<< std::endl;
	std::cin  >> v1 >> v2;
	if (v1 <= v2)
	range = v2 - v1;
} else {
	range = v1 - v2;	
std::cout << "range = " << range << std::endl;
return 0;


Please input two numbers:
4 6
range = 2

Example 4: A program to find the value of exponents

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
	int value, pow, result=1;
	cout << "Please enter operand:" << endl;
	cin  >> value; #cout << "Please enter exponent:" << endl;
	cin  >> pow;
	for (int cnt=0; cnt!=pow; cnt++)
	cout << value << " to the power of " << pow << " is: " << result << endl;
	return 0;


Please enter operand:
Please enter exponent:
2 to the power of 5 is: 32

Step 3: This should be saved as a a.cpp file with a name that correctly describes your application. Choose any of the many other extensions for C++ files, such as *.cc, *.cxx, *.c++, or *.cp, to avoid confusion.

Observer: It ought to read Save as Type: Choose "All Files."

Step 4: Assemble it. Use the command: g++ a sum.cpp if you're using Linux and the gcc compiler. Any C++ compiler, including MS Visual C++, Dev-C++, and other applications of their choice, can be used by Windows users.

Step 5: Run the application. Command:./a.out for Linux and gcc compiler users (a.out is an executable file produced by the compiler after the compilation of the program.)

Now let’s see the process of building a program in Visual Studio Code:

In Visual Studio, how to start a C++ project

  • Select File> New > Project from the main menu to access the Create a New Project dialogue box.
  • Set Language to C++, Platform to Windows, and Project type to Console at the top of the dialogue.
  • Select Console App, then select Next, from the list of project types that have been filtered. Enter the project's name and, if desired, the project's location on the following page.
  • To start the project, select the Create option.

Insert a fresh source file

  1. Click Solution Explorer from the View menu if it isn't already selected.
  2. The following source file should be added to the project.
  3. Right-click the Source Files folder in Solution Explorer, select Add, and then choose New Item.
  4. Click C++ File (.cpp) in the Code node, give the file a name, and then click Add.
  5. The.cpp file is opened in the Visual Studio editor and can be found in the Source Files folder in Solution Explorer.
  6. Type a legitimate C++ program that makes use of the C++ Standard Library in the file's editor or copy one of the sample programs and paste it there.
  7. File saving.
  8. Click Build Solution from the Build menu.

Internal Process Building

The compilation stages described are combined into a process called building in an IDE like Visual Studio. Building and then debugging software is a common approach.

According to how well we coded since our last build, the build produces the executable by compiling and linking the code or a list of problems. The executable File generated by Visual Studio will be launched when we select Start Debugging.

Programming is the process of creating programs. So you do not create programming. You create programs, and programs are the collection of step-wise instructions.

The program you want to create in C requires a code editor and compiler. You can use Code blocks, Turbo C ++, and Dev C++.


You can write an operating system or device driver, or embedded application. Also, by using C/++, you can build a desktop application, a mobile application, a web application, or a server application. Furthermore, you can write an enterprise business application like ERP or CRM and a video game or application for high-performance graphics.