C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++

How to create a library in C++

Before going on to the creation of a library, let’s understand its meaning.

What is a library?

In simple words, a library is a collection of numerous functions, methods, classes, header files etc. One or more header files and an object library make up a C++ library. The class definitions and other information required to access library functions are provided in the header files. Your software is linked with the object library's-built functions and data to create an executable program.

The C++ class libraries are reusable, modular pieces of code. You can integrate sections of code that have already been developed and tested using class libraries.

The most famous library in C++ is Standard Template Library, which means STL, that almost contains every possible thing, which is very helpful in implementing Data Structures and Algorithms.

Segments of the C++ Standard Library can be characterized as follows:

The Standard Function Library: The Standard Function Library is a collection of all-purpose, independent functions that are not contained in any specific class. The function library comes from C by inheritance.

The Object-Oriented Class Library: The object-oriented class library is a collection of classes and related functions.

The point to be noted is that libraries are also classified as Static and Dynamic based on their type.

Static Library: Procedures in a static library are compiled and linked into your program directly. When you generate a program that uses a static library, the executable results include every feature that the static library offers. Static libraries have the benefit of requiring only the executable to be distributed for users to run your software. This guarantees that the appropriate version of the library is always used with your software because the library becomes a part of it. Additionally, you can use static libraries much like the functionality you've created for your own application because they become a part of it. But the disadvantage of a static library is it wastes a lot of memory and can't be upgraded easily. Also, in order to upgrade them, again, all the files that are executable have to be replaced.

Dynamic Library: When running, a program will load procedures from a dynamic library (also called a shared library). A dynamic library does not merge with your executable when you generate a program that requires it; instead, it stays as a different thing. Therefore, extension Dynamic libraries provide the benefit of allowing multiple programs to share a single copy, which saves storage space. The ability to upgrade the dynamic library without having to change all the executables that depend on it may be of more significant benefit.

Since dynamic libraries are not linked to your program, programs that use dynamic libraries must manually load and communicate with the dynamic library. This method makes interacting with a dynamic library challenging and confusing.

The DLLs can be loaded dynamically during run time. Usually, programmers have to write code to do so, like LoadLibrary or LoadLibraryEx. You will need to include the right header files before you can use anything from a library. The compiler knows the prototypes of functions and can check for the correct spelling of function names and for the valid number and type of parameters you pass to it in calls. The library files tell the compiler how to call the function in the DLL.

Note: Both static and dynamic libraries will have different extensions depending upon the usage of Operating Systems like Windows, Linux etc.

Advantages

A. Usually, libraries come in the form of meaning 2, a collection of code that is compiled separately. Sharing common stuff at the source code level can be done, but it might not be the best practice.

B. Those that are essential and can be seen as an extension of the language. This is how you can deal with, for instance, files in C and C++. Also, the entire STL is a great example. Nowadays. Things like vectors and lists are considered essential.

C. Third-party or open-source libraries that are written by others, maybe for profit.

D. Libraries wrote within your company, mainly or exclusively for use within their own projects.

E. Standard code, so other developers understand what it does straight away. Tested code in lots of apps. Many bugs have been flushed out, and many person-hours of development work will be saved.

Now let’s see the working of a library:

Program to demonstrate the working of a Library:

#include <iostream>
#include<stack>
using namespace std;


int main()
{
    stack<int>st;
    st.push(4);
    st.push(3);
    st.push(2);
    st.push(1);
    st.pop();
    while(!st.empty())
    {
        int x=st.top();
        cout<<x<<endl;
        st.pop();
    }
    
    return 0;
}

Output:

2
3
4

Explanation: Here, in the header file, we included a library called #include<stack>. This particular library contains all inbuilt methods, functions, etc., related to stack. In the program, we can see the operations like push, pop, top, empty etc., and as they are already implemented and stored in the stack library, there is absolutely no need for us to implement them again; we can directly use them.

Now, let's see the creation of a static library.

Creation of a static library

1.Create a C++ file that has any methods, functions in the library.

Let the file name be Filename: lib_mylibrary.cpp

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void func(void)
{
  cout<<"func() is a functon which is called from a static library"<<endl;
}

2. Create a header file with .h extension for the library

 Filename is : lib_mylibrary.h

void func(void);

3. Compile library files.

g++ -c lib_mylibrary.cpp -o lib_mylibrary.o

4. Static library creation. In this stage, many object files will be combined into a single static library.

ar rcs lib_mylibrary.a lib_mylibrary.o

5. Our static library is now usable. At this point, all we have to do to use lib mylib.a is copy it somewhere else. Let's keep the library in the current directory for demonstration purposes.

Working:

1. Create a cpp file with main function

#include "lib_mylibrary.h"
void main() 
{
  func();
}

2. Compile the driver program.

g++ -c driver.cpp -o driver.o

3. Now, it’s time to link the static library & compiled driver program to. Here, -L defines the location of a static library.

g++ -o driver driver.o -L. -l_mylibrary

4. Run the driver program

func() is a functon, which is called from a static library

Let’s see the creation of a dynamic library.

1.Create a C++ file that has any methods, functions in the library.

Let the file name be Filename: lib_mylibrary.cpp

#include "lib_mylibrary.h"
void main() 
{
  func();
}

2. Create a header file with .h extension for the library

 Filename is : lib_mylibrary.h

void func(void);

3. Compile library files.

g++ -shared -o lib_mylibrary.so lib_mylibrary.o

The “-shared” flag instructs to generate a shared library. 

4. Static library creation. In this stage, many object files will be combined into a single static library.

ar rcs lib_mylibrary.a lib_mylibrary.o

5. Our static library is now usable. At this point, all we have to do to use lib mylib.a is copy it somewhere else. Let's keep the library in the current directory for demonstration purposes.

Working:

1. Create a cpp file with main function

#include "lib_mylibrary.h"
void main() 
{
  func();
}

2. Compile the driver or main program.

g++ -c driver.o -o driver.so -o a.out

3. Now, it’s time to link the static library & compiled driver program to. Here, -L defines the location of a static library.

g++ -o driver driver.o -L. -l_mylibrary a.out

4. Run the driver program

func() is a functon which is called from a dynamic library.

So far, we have seen the creation of static and dynamic libraries as well as their working and implementation. Let’s have a quick overview of it.

Overview

Libraries come in two types:

Static libraries and dynamic (shared) libraries.

At the time of compilation, static libraries are copied into the executable.

Dynamic libraries are loaded and linked at runtime rather than being duplicated.

How to use static and dynamic libraries in Linux.

LD LIBRARY PATH and -rpath is the two ways to provide a library search path for dynamic libraries.

A library that contains several functions and possibly other items like #defines, constants, classes, etc., that you may use in your application by including the header files. You must instruct your compiler where to find the library's source code, for example, by including the files in your project in your IDE. You may now use the library's functionality without having to create it yourself by reading the documentation, help, and comments. It is frequently detailed how to use the functions, what they accomplish, what parameters are required, and what is returned, maybe with coding examples.

A DLL or shared library has already been independently compiled, similar to what was described before (.so). You only need to have enough of the library's source code to link to it now, not the whole thing. As a result, you'll also require lib files, DLL files, and .so files. Libraries from third parties may or may not come with their complete source code. They are partly protected against others stealing their work by only providing the headers, dll, and library files rather than the source code. Programs can also load more quickly by choosing to load some DLLs later when they are required and take up less memory because other processes can share DLLs. Then you only need one copy of the DLL in memory.

DLL stands for Dynamic Link Library. This word can be used to refer to libraries more generally or specifically to Windows.

Libraries in Unix or Linux have the .so file extension, which is also used as a shorthand to refer to libraries on these operating systems. You must create a separate project and specify to your IDE that the project type is a library rather than an executable or a different kind in order to create a library in meaning two on your own as well.