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C++ Exception Handling

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C++ Date and Time

The date and time formats in C++ will be covered in this article. Because C++ lacks a proper date and time format, we must rely on the c language. The < ctime > header file is

C++ Date and Time

The date and time formats in C++ will be covered in this article. Because C++ lacks a proper date and time format, we must rely on the c language. The < ctime > header file is included in the application to utilize date and time in C++.

The following are the four time-related types in this header file:

  • The t-clock is an arithmetic type name and represents a type of clock. Represents a cold number in the clock (fixed time units with a certain system length). Retrieved type (clock /) t.
  • Time t is an abbreviated form of time. Represents the time returned by the time function (). If the time exceeds 00:00 hours, we subtract the total value as the number of seconds exceeds.
  • Size t indicates the size of any object by bytes and is a nickname for the type of the unsigned number. Task size () prints size and calculation, and output is size t.
  • tm - In the C structure, the tm structure saves the day and time. Described as follows-
struct time {  
    int time_sec; // seconds of minutes from 0 to 61  
    int time_min; // minutes of hour from 0 to 59  
    int time_hour; // hours of day from 0 to 24  
    int time_monday; // day of month from 1 to 31  
    int time_month; // month of year from 0 to 11  
    int time_year; // year since 1900  
    int time_wday; // days since sunday  
    int time_yday; // days since January 1st  
    int time_isdst; // hours of daylight savings time  
}  

C++ date and time functions

The function nameThe function prototypeThe function description
mktimetime_t mktime ( struct time *tm ) ;This function converts mktime to time t, which is the calendar date and time format.
ctimechar *ctime ( const time_t *tm ) ;It gives you a reference to a string with the following format: day month year hours: minutes: seconds year.
difftimedouble difftime ( time_t time2, time_t time1 ) ;The difference between two time objects t1 and t2 is returned.
gmtimestruct time *gmtime ( const time_t *time ) ;This method returns a reference to the time in structure format. The time is in UTC (Universal Coordinated Time).
clockclock_t clock ( void ) ;It offers a rough estimate of how long the caller application has been running. If the value is not accessible, the value.1 is returned.
localtimestruct time *localtime ( const time_t *time ) ;The pointer to the tm structure, which represents local time, is returned by this method.
timetime_t time ( time_t *time ) ;It is the current time.
strftimesize_t strftime ( ) ;We may format date and time in a certain way with the aid of this function.
asctimechar * asctime ( const struct tm * time ) ;The function transforms the tm type object to a string and returns the string's pointer.

The example below shows how to print the current date and time in UTC format:

#include < ctime >   
#include < iostream >  
#include < bits/stdc++.h >
#include < stdlib >
#include < stdio >
using namespace std ;  
int main ( )  
{  
    time_t now = time ( 0 ) ; // get current dat/time with respect to system  
    char* dt = ctime ( &now ) ; // convert it into string  
    cout << "The local date and time is: " << dt << endl ; // print local date and time  
    tm* gmtm = gmtime(&now); // for getting time to UTC convert to struct  
    dt = asctime ( gmtm ) ;  
    cout << "The UTC date and time is:" << dt << endl ; // print UTC date and time  
    return 0;
}

OUTPUT:

The local date and time is: Wed Jun 15 20:19:40 2022
The UTC date and time is: Wed Jun 15 20:19:40 2022
………………………………………………………………………………..
Process executed in 2.33 seconds
Press any key to continue.

Explanation:

In the above example of a program in C++, we have used a header file named ctime to find the current date and time, time_t get our current date and time with re4spect to the system.

The code below shows how to split the tm structure and output each attribute separately using the -> operator:

#include <iostream>  
#include <ctime>  
using namespace std;  
int main()  
{  
    time_t now = time(0); // get current date and time  
    cout << "Number of seconds sinceJune 1, 2022 is:: " << now << endl;  
    tm* ltm = localtime(&now);  
    // print various components of tm structure.  
    cout << "Year:" << 1900 + ltm->tm_year << endl; // print the year  
    cout << "Month: " << 1 + ltm->tm_mon << endl; // print month number  
    cout << "Day: " << ltm->tm_mday << endl; // print the day  
    // Print time in hour:minute:second  
    cout << "Time: " << 5 + ltm->tm_hour << ":";  
    cout << 30 + ltm->tm_min << ":";  
    cout << ltm->tm_sec << endl;  
    return 0;
}  

OUTPUT:

Number of seconds since June 1, 2022 is:: 1632328
Year:2022
Month: 6
Day: 15
Time: 22:40:53
................................................
Process executed in 2.22 seconds
Press any key to continue.

Explanation:

In the above example of a code in C++, we have shown how to split the tm structure and output each attribute separately using the -> operator.

included in the application to utilize date and time in C++.

The following are the four time-related types in this header file:

  • The t-clock is an arithmetic type name and represents a type of clock. Represents a cold number in the clock (fixed time units with a certain system length). Retrieved type (clock /) t.
  • Time t is an abbreviated form of time. Represents the time returned by the time function (). If the time exceeds 00:00 hours, we subtract the total value as the number of seconds exceeds.
  • Size t indicates the size of any object by bytes and is a nickname for the type of the unsigned number. Task size () prints size and calculation, and output is size t.
  • tm - In the C structure, the tm structure saves the day and time. Described as follows-
struct time {  
    int time_sec; // seconds of minutes from 0 to 61  
    int time_min; // minutes of hour from 0 to 59  
    int time_hour; // hours of day from 0 to 24  
    int time_monday; // day of month from 1 to 31  
    int time_month; // month of year from 0 to 11  
    int time_year; // year since 1900  
    int time_wday; // days since sunday  
    int time_yday; // days since January 1st  
    int time_isdst; // hours of daylight savings time  
}  

C++ date and time functions

The function nameThe function prototypeThe function description
mktimetime_t mktime ( struct time *tm ) ;This function converts mktime to time t, which is the calendar date and time format.
ctimechar *ctime ( const time_t *tm ) ;It gives you a reference to a string with the following format: day month year hours: minutes: seconds year.
difftimedouble difftime ( time_t time2, time_t time1 ) ;The difference between two time objects t1 and t2 is returned.
gmtimestruct time *gmtime ( const time_t *time ) ;This method returns a reference to the time in structure format. The time is in UTC (Universal Coordinated Time).
clockclock_t clock ( void ) ;It offers a rough estimate of how long the caller application has been running. If the value is not accessible, the value.1 is returned.
localtimestruct time *localtime ( const time_t *time ) ;The pointer to the tm structure, which represents local time, is returned by this method.
timetime_t time ( time_t *time ) ;It is the current time.
strftimesize_t strftime ( ) ;We may format date and time in a certain way with the aid of this function.
asctimechar * asctime ( const struct tm * time ) ;The function transforms the tm type object to a string and returns the string's pointer.

The example below shows how to print the current date and time in UTC format:

#include < ctime >   
#include < iostream >  
#include < bits/stdc++.h >
#include < stdlib >
#include < stdio >
using namespace std ;  
int main ( )  
{  
    time_t now = time ( 0 ) ; // get current dat/time with respect to system  
    char* dt = ctime ( &now ) ; // convert it into string  
    cout << "The local date and time is: " << dt << endl ; // print local date and time  
    tm* gmtm = gmtime(&now); // for getting time to UTC convert to struct  
    dt = asctime ( gmtm ) ;  
    cout << "The UTC date and time is:" << dt << endl ; // print UTC date and time  
    return 0;
}

OUTPUT:

The local date and time is: Wed Jun 15 20:19:40 2022
The UTC date and time is: Wed Jun 15 20:19:40 2022
………………………………………………………………………………..
Process executed in 2.33 seconds
Press any key to continue.

Explanation:

In the above example of a program in C++, we have used a header file named ctime to find the current date and time, time_t get our current date and time with re4spect to the system.

The code below shows how to split the tm structure and output each attribute separately using the -> operator:

#include <iostream>  
#include <ctime>  
using namespace std;  
int main()  
{  
    time_t now = time(0); // get current date and time  
    cout << "Number of seconds sinceJune 1, 2022 is:: " << now << endl;  
    tm* ltm = localtime(&now);  
    // print various components of tm structure.  
    cout << "Year:" << 1900 + ltm->tm_year << endl; // print the year  
    cout << "Month: " << 1 + ltm->tm_mon << endl; // print month number  
    cout << "Day: " << ltm->tm_mday << endl; // print the day  
    // Print time in hour:minute:second  
    cout << "Time: " << 5 + ltm->tm_hour << ":";  
    cout << 30 + ltm->tm_min << ":";  
    cout << ltm->tm_sec << endl;  
    return 0;
}  

OUTPUT:

Number of seconds since June 1, 2022 is:: 1632328
Year:2022
Month: 6
Day: 15
Time: 22:40:53
................................................
Process executed in 2.22 seconds
Press any key to continue.

Explanation:

In the above example of a code in C++, we have shown how to split the tm structure and output each attribute separately using the -> operator.



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