C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

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Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program 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Dynamic _Cast in C++

C++ is one of the most powerful programming languages. We can write object-oriented and structured programming with the help of C++. In this article, we will learn about the dynamic cast in C++. Before that, we will learn about typecasting in C++.

What is Type Casting?

Casting is a technique in which we can use one data type in another data type. The operator used in the casting technique is known as the cast operator. The cast operator is a unary operator. The conversion of one data type to another data type is the main aim of the casting.

The syntax for casting one operator into another operator is as follows.

Syntax:

(Cast type) expression;
    or
 Cast type (expression)

Example 1:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
        int p, q;
        float r;


        p = 13;
        q = 24;
        r = (float)p * q;


        cout << "The Result Is: " << r;


        return 0;
}

Output:

The Result Is: 312

Explanation

In the above example, first, the variable p is converted to float then multiplied by q, now the result is also floating float then the result is assigned to the variable r. Now, the value of r is 312

Example 2:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;


int main()
{


        int p = 11, q = 3;
        float r;
        r = p / q;


        cout << "The Result Is:" << r;


        return 0;
}

Output:

The Result Is: 312

Explanation

In the above case, the variable r is 3, not 3.6, because variables p and q both are integer types therefore p/q is also an integer type. After calculating p/q that is int type is assigned to the variable r which is float type. But p/q is int type i.e., 11/3 is 3, not 3.6. Therefore, the value of variable r is 3.

Example 3:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;


int main()
{


        int p = 11, q = 3;
        float r;


        
        r = (float)p / q;
        cout << "The Result Is :" << r;


        return 0;
}

Output:

The Result Is: 3.66667

Explanation

Now, the variable r is 3.6, because in the above expression first p is converted into float therefore p/q is also float type. 11.0/3 is 3.6. Then that is assigned to the variable r.

C++ supports four types of the casting. These are as follows:

  1. Static cast
  2. Dynamic cast
  3. Const cast
  4. Reinterpret cast

Static Cast:

It is the simple type of cast used in the C++ programming language for casting. It is a compile-time cast. The conversion of int to float and void to pointer is done by static casting. It is also known as the explicit conversion function.

Dynamic Cast:

It is a type of operator that is used to convert data from one type to another type. It can be used for down casting at run time. We need one virtual function at the base class of programming for working on dynamic type casting. It works on a polymorphic base of the programming language.

Syntax:

dynamic_cast <new_type>(Expression)
  1. Downcasting: The casting of a base class reference for the building of class reference is known as downcasting.
  2. Upcasting: The casting of the derived class reference to a base class reference is known as upcasting.

Example 4:

#include <iostream>


using namespace std;
class Base {
        virtual void print()
        {
                cout << "Base" << endl;
        }
};
class Derived1 : public Base {
        void print()
        {
                cout << "Derived1" << endl;
        }
};
class Derived2 : public Base {
        void print()
        {
                cout << "Derived2" << endl;
        }
};
int main()
{
        Derived1 d1;
        Base* bp = dynamic_cast<Base*>(&d1);
        Derived1* dp2 = dynamic_cast<Derived1*>(bp);
        if (dp2 == nullptr)
                cout << "null" << endl;
        else
                cout << "not null" << endl;


        return 0;
}

Output:

not null

Explanation

In this program, there is one base class and two derived classes (Derived1, Derived2), here the base class pointer hold derived class 1 object (d1). At the time of dynamic_casting base class, the pointer held the Derived1 object and assigning it to derived class 1, assigned valid dynamic_casting