C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++ std::fixed, std::scientific, std::hexfloat, std::defaultfloat in C++ StringStream in C++ for Decimal to Hexadecimal and back The OFFSETOF() macro in C++ Difference between std::next and std::advance in C++ Hiding of all overloaded methods with same name in base class in C++ C++ program to concatenate two strings using operator overloading Difference between array::fill() and array::swap() in C++ Difference between Friend Function and Virtual Function in C++ Semaphores in C++ Seekg in C++

Clamp in C++

In this article, you will learn about the clamp in C++ with its syntax, examples, and several methods.

Introduction to std::clamp:

One useful function in C++ that helps you maintain a value within the specified range is std::clamp. Its main objective is to constrain a value to stay within predetermined bounds. It is especially helpful to ensure that a value in your program stays within certain bounds or imposes restrictions on input.

The <algorithm> header contains the definition of std::clamp, which is a component of the C++ Standard Library. Std::clamp is one of the many helpful functions and algorithms in this header. You can use std::clamp and many other algorithms and tools in your C++ program when you include this header.

Objective:

C++'s std::clamp function clamps a value within a specified range. Stated differently, it ensures that the value falls between a given minimum and maximum value. It can be helpful in several circumstances, including:

  • Authenticating user data
  • Keeping values from exceeding or falling short of expectations
  • Maintaining values for graphical or audio processing within a specific range

Syntax:

The std::clamp function has the following syntax:

template<typename T>


constexpr T clamp(const T& value, const T& min, const T& max);

Where:

T is the type of the value to be clamped.

value is the value to be clamped.

min is the minimum value of the range.

max is the maximum value of the range.

Parameters:

The std::clamp function takes three parameters:

value: The value to be clamped. It can be any type that supports the <operator>.

min: The minimum value of the range. It must be of the same type as value.

max: The maximum value of the range. It must be of the same type as value.

Return value:

The std::clamp function returns a link to the clamped value. The function returns a reference to the initial value if the value is already inside the range. If not, the process refers back to the value closest to the minimum or maximum.

Example:

Let us take an example to demonstrate the use of std::clamp. Use the clamp function to confine a floating-point value to the interval [0, 1]:

#include <algorithm>


#include <iostream>


int main() {


  float inputValue = 10.0f;


  float minimumLimit = 0.0f;


  float maximumLimit = 1.0f;


  // Clamp the input value to the range [0, 1]


  float clampedResult = std::clamp(inputValue, minimumLimit, maximumLimit);


  std::cout << "Clamped value: " << clampedResult << std::endl;


  return 0;


}

Output:

Clamp in C++

Here are some instances of how to restrict a value within a given range using std::clamp:

#include <algorithm>


#include <iostream>


#include <string>


int main() {


  // Example 1: Clamping a temperature within a valid range


  float temperature = 25.5f;


  float minTemperature = 0.0f;


  float maxTemperature = 100.0f;


  float clampedTemperature = std::clamp(temperature, minTemperature, maxTemperature);


  // Example 2: Clamping a speed value within safe limits


  double currentSpeed = 90.5;


  double minSpeed = 0.0;


  double maxSpeed = 120.0;


  double clampedSpeed = std::clamp(currentSpeed, minSpeed, maxSpeed);


  // Example 3: Clamping a username to a reasonable length


  std::string username = "coding_enthusiast2023";


  int maxUsernameLength = 15;


  // Ensure the string does not exceed the maximum length


  if (username.length() > maxUsernameLength) {


    username = username.substr(0, maxUsernameLength);


  }


  // Print the clamped values


  std::cout << "Clamped temperature: " << clampedTemperature << " degrees Celsius" << std::endl;


  std::cout << "Clamped speed: " << clampedSpeed << " km/h" << std::endl;


  std::cout << "Clamped username: " << username << std::endl;


  return 0;


}

Output:

Clamp in C++

Other instances:

  • Before processing, a user-input value must be clamped to a valid range.
  • Clamping a sound file's volume to avoid clipping.
  • Adjusting an image's brightness to avoid over- or underexposure.
  • Clamping an object's position in a video game so that it stays inside the game's boundaries.

If the custom type supports the <operator>, it can be used with a wide range of data types, including integers, floating-point numbers, and custom types, using the std::clamp function.

Integers:

You only need to pass the integer to the std::clamp function along with the range's minimum and maximum values to clamp an integer to a given range. A reference to the clamped integer will be the function's return value.

An example of clamping an integer to the range [0, 100] is given below:

#include <iostream>


#include <algorithm>


int main() {


  int value = 50;


  int min = 0;


  int max = 100;


  int clampedValue = std::clamp(value, min, max);


  std::cout << "Original value: " << value << std::endl;


  std::cout << "Clamped value: " << clampedValue << std::endl;


  return 0;


}

Output:

Clamp in C++

Numerical floating points:

The same method for integers can also clamp a floating-point number to a given range. It is crucial to remember that floating-point numbers are prone to rounding errors, so the clamped value might not match the range's minimum or maximum value exactly.

#include <iostream>


#include <algorithm> // Include the algorithm header for std::clamp


int main() {


  float value = 0.5f;


  float min = -1.0f;


  float max = 1.0f;


  float clampedValue = std::clamp(value, min, max);


  std::cout << "Clamped value: " << clampedValue << std::endl;


  return 0;


}

Output:

Clamp in C++

Custom types:

A custom type needs to support the <operator> to use std::clamp with it. Thus, it is necessary that the type can be compared to other values of the same type.

An illustration of a custom type that works with std::clamp is provided here:

struct MyCustomType {


int value;


  bool operator<(const MyCustomType& other) const {


    return value < other.value;


  }


};

You can easily use the std::clamp function to clamp a MyCustomType to a given range by passing it along its minimum and maximum values. The function will return the clamped MyCustomType reference.

Here is an illustration of how to clamp a MyCustomType to the [0, 100] range:

#include <iostream>


#include <algorithm>


class MyCustomType {


public:


  int value;


  MyCustomType(int val) : value(val) {}


  bool operator<(const MyCustomType& other) const {


    return value < other.value;


  }


};


int main() {


  MyCustomType value{50};


  MyCustomType min{0};


  MyCustomType max{100};


  MyCustomType clampedValue = std::clamp(value, min, max);


  std::cout << "Clamped value: " << clampedValue.value << std::endl;


  return 0;


}

Output:

Clamp in C++

Useful scenarios for std::clamp:

Std::clamp's input validation function can be used to verify that user input falls inside a valid range. For instance, you could use std::clamp to verify that an integer input is between 0 and 100.

int value = std::clamp(user_input, 0, 100);

Data normalization: Use std::clamp to normalize data to a specified range. For instance, you could use std::clamp to normalize sensor data to the range [0, 1].

float normalized_value = std::clamp(sensor_value, 0.0f, 1.0f);

Stopping overflow and underflow: You can stop integer and floating-point numbers from overflowing or underflowing using std::clamp. For instance, you could use std::clamp to make sure a pixel value in an image is between 0 and 255.

unsigned char pixel_value = std::clamp(pixel_value, 0, 255);

Maintaining values for visual or audio processing within a specific range: For graphical or audio processing, values can be maintained within a range using std::clamp. For instance, you could ensure that a sound file's volume is within a comfortable range by using std::clamp.

float clamped_volume = std::clamp(volume, -1.0f, 1.0f);

Other use cases:

  • Maintaining an object's position in a video game within the boundaries of the real world.
  • Keeping an image's brightness from rising above a specific level.
  • Putting a cap on the quantity of items in a queue or list.
  • Guaranteeing that a value is always a specific distance away from another value.

Ranges and Comparators:

Use the overload of the std::clamp function, which accepts a range iterator and a comparator as arguments, to use custom comparators or specify ranges besides the default min and max values.

template<typename T, typename InputIterator, typename Comparator>


constexpr T clamp(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, Comparator comp);

Whereas:

  • T is the type of value that needs to be clamped.
  • A forward iterator to the start of the range is called an inputiterator, and a forward iterator to the end of the range is called a last one.
  • A binary predicate called a comparator accepts two values of type T as arguments and outputs a bool. If the first value is less than the second value, the predicate should return true; if not, it should return false.
  • You only need to pass an instance of the custom comparator to the std::clamp function to use it. The comparator will be used to compare the values in the range to decide which value should be returned.

Here is an illustration of how to clamp a range of integers to the range [0, 100] using a custom comparator:

#include <algorithm>


#include <iostream>


#include <vector>


struct MyComparator {


  bool operator()(int a, int b) const {


    return a < b;


  }


};


int main() {


  std::vector<int> values = {50, 100, -10, 200, 300};


  // Sort the values using the custom comparator


  std::sort(values.begin(), values.end(), MyComparator());


  // Clamp the values to the range [0, 100]


  std::vector<int>::iterator min_it = std::lower_bound(values.begin(), values.end(), 0);


  std::vector<int>::iterator max_it = std::upper_bound(values.begin(), values.end(), 100);


  std::vector<int> clamped_values(min_it, max_it);


  // Print the clamped values


  for (int value : clamped_values) {


    std::cout << value << " ";


  }


  std::cout << std::endl;


  return 0;


}

Output:

Clamp in C++

Finally, custom comparators and defined ranges with std::clamp are helpful for several applications, such as:

  • Verifying information provided by the user.
  • Data standardization.
  • Stopping both overflow and underflow.
  • Directing the processing of images or sounds.
  • Limiting where objects are located in video games.
  • Controlling thresholds for image brightness.
  • Items in a queue or list are limited.
  • Keeping one value constant with another at a given distance.