C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

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Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program 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Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference 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in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design 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BIT VECTORS IN C++

Introduction to bit array or bit vector in C++:

“Vector <bool> is a specialized version of the vector template. Every bool value within this specialized version only requires one bit, as opposed to a traditional bool variable, which requires a minimum of one byte. As a result, the iterator associated with this specialization cannot be a bool and must be specified explicitly.”

A collection of values that are either true or false may be expressed in a single bit in the form of a bit array or bit vector. This is known as bit arrays (or) bit vectors. This method will save memory when handling huge volumes of such data, even though Boolean variables normally need a minimum of one byte of storage.

Bit vectors of lesser sizes will be utilized for storing integers when they don't fit into normal variables having sizes 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits. For example, a 16-bit bit vector may hold a number with 4 bits, 2 bits, along with 10 bits, which reduces storage waste by 50%. Alternatively, for storing such a number, three variables with widths of 8, 8, & 16 bits would be needed. These kinds of applications aren't used in the business sector. They are usually used for low-level programming and for communicating with drivers via pinvoke (or) interop methods.

Bit Vectors in C++:

Positions may be mapped to bit values using Bit Arrays, which are composed of Bit Vectors. They resemble arrays of Booleans, in essence. However, the usual Boolean implementation takes up to four bytes of space, making it excessive. By employing arrays of words as well as binary masking operations like shifts, we may store data with increased efficiency. Memory utilization, memory accesses, cache misses, and memory page shifting are all decreased using this technique. Even with these advantages, retrieving specific parts is still an easy process.

Bit fields, whereby int i:1 can be utilized to denote the usage of a single bit, are supported by the C++ language by default. That being said, arrays are not supported by this facility, and it offers only restricted control over the result, as implementation details depend on alignment and compiler factors. Suppose you have chosen a fixed int size of 32 bits for simplicity; however, sizeof(int) may be used to make it accessible. Additionally, using >> 5 rather than / 32 & 31 rather than % 32 may speed up the code, depending upon the compiler as well as the target CPU; however, this is only a recommendation.

Storing Data in the bit vector in C++:

Bit vectors are not a representation of ASCII characters. Rather, they stand for individual bits. It is quite improbable that executing bv [0] = 104 on a bit vector would result in the intended result; it could even fail to compile or run correctly. Set the 5th bit to 1, and the 10th bit to 0, and all of these bits to this, OR the bits of each of these vectors, and potentially further operations are supported for the desired operations. The programming language that is being used and its particular implementations may have an impact on how things are kept in memory. It is generally accepted that every bit should occupy roughly one unit of memory, it is not rigorously maintained. However, it is probable that the procedure will include additional storage expenditure.

It is feasible to hold 64 bits in each place of an array of 64-bit values, to demonstrate. However, in this process of converting to ASCII would be meaningless in this case. It is important to remember that data is being kept in memory as bits, even when ASCII is being utilized. Therefore, unless you were referring to anything different, both of those arrays are basically the same. In what way does a bit vector store data? First, simply to make sure we are on the exact same page, that you should definitely familiarize yourself with the definition of a bit vector. Bit vectors represent bits rather than ASCII letters. Attempting to do bv [0]=104 upon the bit vector will fail to compile or execute, and even if it does, it's extremely difficult to get the desired results.

Conclusion:

In this article, we have seen about Bit vectors in C++. Bit vectors are more efficient for managing the memory.