Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)
- Prioritizes data over methods (functions) and treats data as an essential component of program development.
- OOP prohibits the free flow of data throughout the system.
- Tighter ties to data manipulation functions and protection against accidental data modification by external functions.
- An object's data can only be accessed by the functions associated with that object; however, an object's functionality can access the functionality of other objects (C++, Java, Dot Net, Python, etc.) using OOP.
- This allows you to decompose a problem into a set of units called objects and build data and functionality around those objects.
- Object-oriented programming places more emphasis on data than on methods (functions) in its approach.
- The data is hidden and cannot be retrieved by external functions, so programs are divided into objects.
- Functions that manipulate the data of an object are linked in a data structure. Functions enable objects to communicate with one another. As required, new data and features can be easily added.
- Take a bottom-up approach to the design of your program. OOP (Object Oriented Programming).
- Class object encapsulation, data abstraction, estate polymorphism, data binding, and message delivery.
- Real-time systems like control systems for cars, planes, and spacecraft, among other things.
- OA systems like spreadsheet software and document management systems like Word.
- Expert systems, AI, neural networks, parallel programming, decision support systems, and other similar technologies
Advantages of OOP:
- Increase in software development productivity.
Because it allows tasks to be separated during the development of object-oriented programs, object-oriented programming is modular. It is also extensible because objects can be extended to include new properties and behaviours.
- Objects can also be reused in other applications. Because of these three characteristics—modularity, extensibility, and reusability—object-oriented programming is more productive than traditional procedural programming techniques.
Improved software maintainability:
- Parts of the system can be updated when issues arise without requiring significant changes because the design is modular.
- Reuse can accelerate development because object-oriented programming languages include extensive object libraries, project-developed code can also be reused in subsequent projects. Lower development expenses:
Lower cost of development:
- Software reuse can also cut development costs. Object-oriented analysis and design often gets more attention, which lowers development costs.
Software of higher quality:
- Software validation can now take up more time and resources thanks to faster software development and lower development costs. Even though the team's experience affects the quality, object-oriented programming tends to produce software of higher quality.
Some disadvantages of OOP:
- In the early days of computers, there was a limited amount of space on hard drives, floppy drives, and memory. Object-oriented programs are much larger than other types of programs. We do not currently face these restrictions.
- It takes a lot of work to make programs that are object-oriented. In particular, object-oriented programs are meticulously planned long before any code is written. At first, many people thought this was a waste of time. Additionally, because the program is larger, coders spend more time writing it.
- Other aspects of object-oriented programs also require more system resources, which can slow the program down. Object-oriented programs are slower than other programs because of their size.
Procedural programming (POP)
- In POP, programs are written as a series of steps or functions, whereas in the procedural approach, large programs are broken up into smaller programs called functions.
- Each procedure (function) in a POP can be called from other procedures while the program is running. Each step (function) in a POP contains a set of instructions to complete a specific task. Simply write the name of the function to invoke a procedure (function).
- POP focuses on procedure (function) rather than data. In multifunction programs, a lot of important data is placed globally so that all functions can access it.
- We focus on developing functions but pay little attention to the data used by the various functions. Global dates are susceptible to being erroneously modified by functions, so each function can have its own local data.
- The C programming language, COBOL, FORTRAN, and PASCAL are all examples of procedural programming languages.
- It can be extremely challenging to identify which data are utilized by which function in large programs.
- Large programs are broken up into smaller programs called functions, and the majority of these functions share global data.
- Data moves freely from one function to another within the system.Data's value is altered at any time and from any place by functions.(Data is converted from one format to another by functions.)
- The design of programs is top-down.
- The global data can be accessed and modified by any procedure (function), so there is no data security in POP.
- Because functions are action-oriented, POP does not model real-world issues because changing the data type of global data necessitates resolving all functions that access the data.
Difference between OOP and POP
|A programme is made up of things.
|The application performs a variety of tasks.
|It uses legacy property.
|There is no room for inheritance.
|It uses the access specifier.
|There is no use of access specifier in it.
|The encapsulation of the data conceals it.
|There is no data concealing.
|A virtual function is a notion.
|NO virtual function is a notion.
|Message forwarding connects the functionalities of an object.
|Program components are connected through parameter passing.
|New data and functionalities may be added with ease.
|Adding more data and functions is challenging.
|Use to solve larger problems.
|Code can't be used again.