C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++

Inheritance in C++ vs Java

Just like we inherit traits from our parents, object-oriented programming has a concept called inheritance. In terms of object-oriented programming, a class's traits and behaviours, or its data and methods, are referred to as its characteristics.

As it allows objects to take on the characteristics and behaviours of other objects, inheritance is a key component of object-oriented programming. As a result, less new code needs to be created, written, and tested every time a new programme is created. Classes inside a programme inherit from one another, creating a hierarchical connection.

Inheritance comparison in C++ and Java :

Inheritance serves the same function in Java and C++. Both languages utilise inheritance to reuse code and/or establish a "is-a" connection. The distinctions among Java and C++ that enable inheritance will be shown by the examples that follow.

1.In Java, all the classes either directly or indirectly are derived from the Object class.

As a result, there is always only one class inheritance tree in Java, with the Object Class acting as its root. When a class is created in Java, the Object Class is immediately inherited. A class that doesn't inherit from another is created as a new tree in a forest in C++, where there is a forest of classes.

The Tests class automatically derives from the Object class, as seen by the Java example.

Example :

class Tests {
	// members of the tests class
}
class Main {
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		Tests ts = new Tests();
		System.out.println("ts is an instance of Object: "
						+ (ts instanceof Object));
	}
}

Output :

ts is an instance of Object: true

2. In Java, it is not possible to directly access members of the grandparent class.

3. In Java, protected member access specifier has a somewhat different meaning.

In Java, even if class "Q" doesn't inherit from class "P," protected elements of class "P" are available in class "Q" of the same package (both of them must need to be in the same package).

For instance, in the programme below, protected members of P are reachable in Q.

Example :

class P {
	protected int i = 100, j = 200;
}


class Q {
	public static void main(String args[])
	{
		P p = new P();
		System.out.println(p.i + " " + p.j);
	}
}

Output :

100 200

4. For inheritance, Java utilises the 'extends' keyword.

Java does not include inheritance specifiers like public, protected, or private, in contrast to C++. Because of this, we are unable to reduce the security level of base class members in Java. If a data item is public or protected in the base class then it will stay the same in the derived class as well. Similar to C++, a derived class's private members cannot be accessed.

Contrary to C++, Java does not need us to know the inheritance rules, which combine the inheritance specifier and base class access specifier.

5) In Java, virtual methods are the default while virtual keyword is used explicitly in C++.

6) Java employs the keywords interface and abstract, respectively, for the interfaces and for the classes and methods that are abstract.

Given below is an instance of abstract class in java.

Example :

// An example of the abstract class 
abstract class theAbstractClass {  
  
    // An abstract method  
    abstract void theAbstractFun();  
  
    // A normal method  
    void func() { System.out.println("Inside the func"); }  
}  
  
public class theClass extends theAbstractClass {  
    public void theAbstractFun()  
    {  
        System.out.println("Inside the func");  
    }  
}  

Given below is an instance of java interface.

Example :

// An example of java interface.
public interface theInterface {  
  
    // theAbstractFun() is public 
    // and abstract, even if we  
    // don't use these keywords  
    void theAbstractFun();  
    // is same as public abstract void theAbstractFun()  
}  
  
// implements keyword is also used.  
public class theClass implements theInterface {  
    public void theAbstractFun()  
    {  
        System.out.println("Inside the func");  
    }  
}  

7) Java does not enable multiple inheritances, in contrast to C++.

A class can only descend from one other class. A class, though, can implement several interfaces.

8) In C++, the parent class's default constructor is automatically called, but if we wish to invoke a parent class's parameterized constructor, we must utilise the Initializer list. In Java, the parent class's default constructor is automatically invoked, similar to C++, but if we wish to execute a parameterized constructor, we must use the “super” keyword. Refer to the Java instance shown below.

Example :


class Base {
	private int B;
	Base(int p)
	{
		B = p;
		System.out.println("The Base constructor is called");
	}
}


class Derive extends Base {
	private int D;
	Derive(int p, int q)
	{
		// Parent class parameterized constructor is being called
		// The calling of parent constructor must be in the first line
		// inside the Derived class 'Derive'
		super(p);
		D = q;
		System.out.println(" The Derived constructor is called");
	}
}


class Main {
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		Derive objct = new Derive(10, 20);
	}
}

Output :

The Base constructor is called
The Derived constructor is called



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